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APUSH-14-D

Military strategy, campaigns, and battles


Resources:

Abolitionism and Antislavery
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Conclusion

The Civil War
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Features of the Civil War: Technology
The Road to Emancipation: The Actions of Slaves
Who's Who

Relevant texts:
A Union general's description of slaves in his camp.
A black soldier's letter describing the attack on Fort Wagner
An officer's account of black soldiers' assault on Port Hudson

Relevant transcripts:
Professor Foner introduces the e-seminar
Undermining slavery.
At the very end of the war, the South in desperation voted to enlist black soldiers in the Confederate Army.

Relevant interactive tools:
The Civil War employed many nineteenth century technological innovations. The use of the "rifled musket" increased the casualty rate and influenced the way battles were conducted, and the infant art of photography brought the war home.
The Civil War employed many nineteenth century technological innovations. The use of the "rifled musket" increased the casualty rate and influenced the way battles were conducted, and the infant art of photography brought the war home.
Civil War timeline.
Civil War timeline.

Conclusion
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the spring of 1861, Fort Sumter, located in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, remained in Union hands despite South Carolina's succession. The Confederacy fired on the fort in April and inaugurated the Civil War.

Benjamin F. Butler (1818-93)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Lawyer and Union army general. Butler's sensational personal style often placed him in the foreground of various Union war efforts. As leader of the 8th Massachusetts Militia he pressured Maryland to reject secession, thereby helping to insure that the District of Columbia did not become isolated from the Union states. In addition, he characterized runaway slaves as "contraband of war" and refused to return them to the Confederacy.

Ulysses S. Grant (1822-85)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Commander in chief of the Union army and 18th president of the United States. Grant won an early victory for the Union at Shiloh, Tennessee (1862), but at the cost of 10,000 casualties. The engagement sealed Grant's military partnership with General William Sherman, a partnership that was essential to the Union's ultimate victory. Grant's reputation as a strategist was solidified during the Vicksburg campaign (1862–63). Despite formidable Confederate defenses, his troops captured Vicksburg, Mississippi, and, with it, control of the Mississippi River; this was a crucial turning point in the war. Grant's victory at Chattanooga, Tennessee (1863), led President Lincoln to promote him to commander in chief (1864). General Robert E. Lee of the Confederate armies surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, Virginia (1865).

"Stonewall" (Thomas Jonathan) Jackson (1824-63)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Confederate general. Jackson, a Virginian, was a strong Unionist, but when his state seceded he followed. He received his nickname at the first battle of Bull Run (or Manassas, 1861) by resisting (standing "like a stone wall") the efforts of Union troops to penetrate the Confederate forces. Assigned to command in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia (1861), he defeated John C. Frémont's troops (1862), which were subsequently reinforced but decisively defeated by Jackson the next month. He was accidentally shot and killed by his own men at Chancellorsville, Virginia (1863).

Robert E. Lee (1807-70)
Resource Type: Primary Source
General in chief of the Confederate armies. In 1859, Lee commanded a unit of U.S. marines in the capture of John Brown, an abolitionist who had taken over a U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now in West Virginia). Lee was a Unionist, but when Virginia (his native state) seceded he followed, and assumed leadership of the Confederate armies in the East. He reinforced Stonewall Jackson's army in the Shenandoah Valley campaign (1862) and resisted Union general George B. McClellan's troops in Richmond shortly thereafter. He fought McClellan to a draw at Antietam, Maryland, in the fall of 1862, lost to the Union army at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (1863), and surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, Virginia (1865).

George B. McClellan (1826-85)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Union general. At the battle of Antietam, McClellan fought Lee's Confederate army to a draw (1862). McClellan lost favor with President Lincoln and the Union press because of his apparent reluctance to fight and his inability to defeat Lee. Though he was a Unionist, McClellan was also a proslavery Democrat, which caused many Republicans to distrust him.

Robert Gould Shaw (1837-63)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Abolitionist and Union army colonel. Shaw, born into a white, privileged family in Boston, became an ardent abolitionist. During the Civil War, he assumed leadership of the Massachusetts 54th Regiment, the first African American regiment organized in a free state. Shaw and many of his men were killed during the unit's ill-fated assault on Fort Wagner in Charleston, South Carolina. The battle brought attention to the service of African American soldiers in the war. Shaw and the regiment were memorialized by the sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens in a monument on Boston Common.

William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-91)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Union general. Sherman, along with other Union commanders, suffered defeat at the first battle at Bull Run (or Manassas, 1861), but he later formed a wartime partnership with General Ulysses S. Grant that worked to both men's advantage. Sherman distinguished himself in military engagements at Shiloh and in Memphis (both in 1862). When Grant became commander in chief of the Union armies, Sherman succeeded him as supreme commander in the West (1864). Sherman is best known for his destructive march from Atlanta to the sea (1864).

Lorenzo Thomas (1804-75)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Union general. Shortly after the Emancipation Proclamation (1863), Thomas was ordered to the Mississippi Valley to lead the Union's first concerted effort to recruit African Americans into the army. Under his direction, the Bureau of Colored Troops was established, and his actions helped to erode the resistance of white soldiers to incorporating fugitive slaves into military service. By the end of the war, Thomas had recruited more than 75,000 African American soldiers.

Features of the Civil War: North and South Compared
Resource Type: Primary Source
Going to war: Private Edwin Francis Jemison, 2d Louisiana Regiment, C.S.A (c. 1861). He was killed in the battle of Malvern Hill (July 1862).

Features of the Civil War: North and South Compared
Resource Type: Primary Source
Unidentified Union soldier (c. 1863).

Features of the Civil War: North and South Compared
Resource Type: Primary Source
Private John J. Rhodes, Company K, 5th Virginia Regiment, C.S.A (c. 1863).

Features of the Civil War: North and South Compared
Resource Type: Primary Source
Sergeant James W. Travis, 38th Illinois Volunteer Infantry (c. 1863).

African Americans and the Civil War
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This rich variety of primary sources allows students to evaluate the role and historical agency of African Americans. When W. E. B. DuBois wrote Black Reconstruction in America (1935), he quoted a contemporary historian who gave no credit to African Americans for the freedom they won. These documents provide evidence of the roles African Americans played in the history of the Civil War and the larger history of their fight for freedom and equality.

African American Soldiers
Resource Type: Primary Source
This was one of many battles in which the new African American troops distinguished themselves.

The Role of African Americans in the Civil War
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Although there has been no major attack on the view that African Americans played a decisive role in winning the Civil War, it is also true that, with the exception of W.E.B. Du Bois in Black Reconstruction, there were no historians writing prior to 1960, who would have agreed with Foner's interpretation on the decisive role played by African Americans. A teacher explores how, prior to the rise of the civil-rights movement in the mid-1950s, professional historians simply had been uninterested in the behavior of African Americans, either as slaves or as soldiers.


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