Columbia University Digital Knowledge Ventures
Columbia American History Online

Main Menu
E-Seminars
searchhelp

There are 74 items indexed to this topic.

You can select a more specific topic to find fewer materials.

APUSH-14

Civil War


A.  The Union

1.  Mobilization and finance

2.  Civil liberties

3.  Election of 1864

B.  The South

1.  Confederation constitution

2.  Mobilization and finance

3.  States' rights and the Confederacy

C.  Foreign affairs and diplomacy

D.  Military strategy, campaigns, and battles

E.  The abolition of slavery

1.  Confiscation Acts

2.  Emancipation Proclamation

3.  Freedmen's Bureau

4.  Thirteenth Amendment

F.  Effects of war on society

1.  Inflation and public debt

2.  Role of women

3.  Devastation of the South

4.  Changing labor patterns


Resources:

History as Destiny: The Case of New York City
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant transcripts:
Cities Have Personalities Too

Colonial City: Revolutionary Battleground
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
New York and the Civil War

Relevant transcripts:
A Free and Independent City
Bitter Rivals
Slavery: A Business Necessity
New York Fights to Protect Its Business
Conclusion: The City Prospers as Never Before

Relevant interactive tools:
The Draft Riots
The Draft Riots

Urban Crisis: Disease, Crime, and Space
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant texts:
Background to the Riots

Relevant transcripts:
Summer of 1863
Response to the Riots

The Old South
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Slave Life and Culture: Slave Communities

Abolitionism and Antislavery
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Conclusion

Relevant transcripts:
Professor Foner offers concluding remarks.

The Civil War
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
Features of the Civil War: North and South Compared
Features of the Civil War: Technology
The Road to Emancipation: The Actions of Slaves
The Road to Emancipation: Changes in Strategy
The Road to Emancipation: Lincoln's Early Actions
The Emancipation Proclamation: Characteristics
The Road to Emancipation: Characteristics
Black Soldiers: A Changed Policy
Black Soldiers: Service and Citizenship
Black Soldiers: Northern Sentiments
The End of Slavery
The End of Slavery
Who's Who
Timeline

Relevant texts:
A Kentucky slave's account of joining the Union army
A Union general's description of slaves in his camp.
A black soldier's letter describing the attack on Fort Wagner
An officer's account of black soldiers' assault on Port Hudson
The Emancipation Proclamation.
Description of celebrations of the Proclamation in Washington D.C.
An excerpt from Lincoln's last public address.

Relevant transcripts:
Professor Foner introduces the e-seminar
The war undermined slaveowners' control of the slaves.
Undermining slavery.
Professor Foner discusses criticism of the proclamation.
Service had a profound effect on black soldiers and the black community.
Professor Foner discusses Lincoln's changing views.
At the very end of the war, the South in desperation voted to enlist black soldiers in the Confederate Army.

Relevant interactive tools:
Geography of Slavery
Geography of Slavery
The Civil War employed many nineteenth century technological innovations. The use of the "rifled musket" increased the casualty rate and influenced the way battles were conducted, and the infant art of photography brought the war home.
The Civil War employed many nineteenth century technological innovations. The use of the "rifled musket" increased the casualty rate and influenced the way battles were conducted, and the infant art of photography brought the war home.
The Civil War and the service of black soldiers did not eliminate racism in the North, but there were also indications that in some quarters attitudes were changing.
The Civil War and the service of black soldiers did not eliminate racism in the North, but there were also indications that in some quarters attitudes were changing.
Civil War timeline.
Civil War timeline.

Slavery and Emancipation—E-Seminar 5, The Civil War
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In The Civil War, the fifth in the series Slavery and Emancipation, Professor Eric Foner explores the combination of factors that propelled the Lincoln administration down the road to emancipation. Foner also describes how the service of black men in the Union forces contributed to the war's outcome and raised the question of black citizenship.

Mississippi's Declaration of Secession
Resource Type: Primary Source
The first state to secede was South Carolina, doing so on December 20, 1860. Before the end of February, all the states of the Deep South (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas) had seceded.

African Americans and the Civil War
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This rich variety of primary sources allows students to evaluate the role and historical agency of African Americans. When W. E. B. DuBois wrote Black Reconstruction in America (1935), he quoted a contemporary historian who gave no credit to African Americans for the freedom they won. These documents provide evidence of the roles African Americans played in the history of the Civil War and the larger history of their fight for freedom and equality.

Harriet Tubman's Letter to Lincoln
Resource Type: Primary Source
After escaping from slavery in 1849, Harriet Tubman became one of the most prominent abolitionists and a driving force behind the various secret escape routes for slaves. In this quotation from a letter by another great abolitionist, Lydia Maria Child, Tubman seeks to influence President Abraham Lincoln.

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Read the Emancipation Proclamation to determine whom exactly it set free. Was the Proclamation issued because the war was not going well for the North or because African Americans were demanding that the destruction of slavery become the key aim of the war?

Recruiting Poster
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Abraham Lincoln did not endorse the active recruitment of free African Americans into the Union army until 1863.

African American Soldiers
Resource Type: Primary Source
This was one of many battles in which the new African American troops distinguished themselves.

African American Troops Liberating Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the African American presence in the Northern war effort increased, so did the chances of freeing slaves from Southern plantations.

A Man Knows a Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
Military service, especially in battle, was often seen as a rite of passage that turned boys into men. Physical scarring or maiming served as the visible symbol of manhood tested and earned through combat.

Why Did the South (Excluding the Border States) Secede?
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
The cause of the Civil War is hotly debated and contested by historians. Some disagree with Eric Foner's thesis and assign to slavery a lesser role in causing the Civil War. Two interpretations that predate Foner are worth mentioning: the economic one, put forth by Charles and Mary Beard; and the political one, proposed by Avery Craven and James G. Randall, which maintains that the war was caused by a "blundering generation" of 1850s leaders, who missed the opportunity to compromise.

The Emancipation Proclamation
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Eric Foner considers the Emancipation Proclamation to have been the turning point of the Civil War (1861–65), of the history of slavery, and for President Abraham Lincoln (1809–65) himself. Primarily through the work of Ira Berlin and others, historians have learned a great deal about the behavior of slaves before and after the Emancipation Proclamation. What emerged from this investigation is what Foner calls a new synthesis "that sees slavery as the most crucial problem of antebellum American life and the fundamental cause of the Civil War, and the myriad consequences of emancipation as the central themes of the war and Reconstruction."

The Role of African Americans in the Civil War
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Although there has been no major attack on the view that African Americans played a decisive role in winning the Civil War, it is also true that, with the exception of W.E.B. Du Bois in Black Reconstruction, there were no historians writing prior to 1960, who would have agreed with Foner's interpretation on the decisive role played by African Americans. A teacher explores how, prior to the rise of the civil-rights movement in the mid-1950s, professional historians simply had been uninterested in the behavior of African Americans, either as slaves or as soldiers.

Compromise Between the North and South
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this dramatic simulation students will explore the possibility of an eleventh-hour compromise between the North and the South on the eve of the Civil War (1861–65). Students will understand how mounting tensions in the 1850s eventually led to the outbreak of war.

Decisions of Slaves to Leave the Plantation: Should I Stay or Should I Go?
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation students will examine the very complex decision that slaves faced regarding whether to leave the plantations in the early years of the Civil War and whether to join the Union forces. Students will understand how a single decision gravely affected the lives of slaves, their families, the outcome of the war, and even the period of Reconstruction.

The Second Confiscation Act
Resource Type: Primary Source
The U.S. Congress passsed legislation to inhibit treason against the Union.

The End of Slavery
Resource Type: Primary Source
General Sherman's troops march through Washington, D.C., during the grand review of the national armies (May 1865).

The Draft Riots
Resource Type: Primary Source
Recruiting station for the Union Army, in City Hall Park (1864).

Recruiting Poster
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Abraham Lincoln did not endorse the active recruitment of free African Americans into the Union army until 1863.

Jefferson Davis (1808-89)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Southern politician and president of the Confederacy (1861–65). Davis graduated from West Point in 1828 and served briefly in Congress, which he left to fight in the Mexican War. After returning, he was appointed U.S. senator from Mississippi to fill a vacated seat. In 1853 he was appointed secretary of war by President Franklin Pierce. Davis initially opposed the secession of Southern states but accepted the post of major general of Mississippi's armed forces when that state seceded in 1861. Only weeks later, the Confederate Convention named him president. His presidency was marked by dissension among different factions within the Confederacy. After General Robert E. Lee surrendered to the North without Davis's approval, Davis fled from the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, and was captured in Georgia. He was held prisoner for two years and was released on bail in 1867. For the rest of his life he spoke out in defense of the defeated South.

Mississippi's Declaration of Secession
Resource Type: Primary Source
The first state to secede was South Carolina, doing so on December 20, 1860. Before the end of February, all the states of the Deep South (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas) had seceded.

Who's Who
Resource Type: Primary Source
John C. Breckinridge (1821–75).

Who's Who
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jefferson Davis (1808–1889).

Conclusion
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the spring of 1861, Fort Sumter, located in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, remained in Union hands despite South Carolina's succession. The Confederacy fired on the fort in April and inaugurated the Civil War.

Benjamin F. Butler (1818-93)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Lawyer and Union army general. Butler's sensational personal style often placed him in the foreground of various Union war efforts. As leader of the 8th Massachusetts Militia he pressured Maryland to reject secession, thereby helping to insure that the District of Columbia did not become isolated from the Union states. In addition, he characterized runaway slaves as "contraband of war" and refused to return them to the Confederacy.

Ulysses S. Grant (1822-85)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Commander in chief of the Union army and 18th president of the United States. Grant won an early victory for the Union at Shiloh, Tennessee (1862), but at the cost of 10,000 casualties. The engagement sealed Grant's military partnership with General William Sherman, a partnership that was essential to the Union's ultimate victory. Grant's reputation as a strategist was solidified during the Vicksburg campaign (1862–63). Despite formidable Confederate defenses, his troops captured Vicksburg, Mississippi, and, with it, control of the Mississippi River; this was a crucial turning point in the war. Grant's victory at Chattanooga, Tennessee (1863), led President Lincoln to promote him to commander in chief (1864). General Robert E. Lee of the Confederate armies surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, Virginia (1865).

"Stonewall" (Thomas Jonathan) Jackson (1824-63)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Confederate general. Jackson, a Virginian, was a strong Unionist, but when his state seceded he followed. He received his nickname at the first battle of Bull Run (or Manassas, 1861) by resisting (standing "like a stone wall") the efforts of Union troops to penetrate the Confederate forces. Assigned to command in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia (1861), he defeated John C. Frémont's troops (1862), which were subsequently reinforced but decisively defeated by Jackson the next month. He was accidentally shot and killed by his own men at Chancellorsville, Virginia (1863).

Robert E. Lee (1807-70)
Resource Type: Primary Source
General in chief of the Confederate armies. In 1859, Lee commanded a unit of U.S. marines in the capture of John Brown, an abolitionist who had taken over a U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now in West Virginia). Lee was a Unionist, but when Virginia (his native state) seceded he followed, and assumed leadership of the Confederate armies in the East. He reinforced Stonewall Jackson's army in the Shenandoah Valley campaign (1862) and resisted Union general George B. McClellan's troops in Richmond shortly thereafter. He fought McClellan to a draw at Antietam, Maryland, in the fall of 1862, lost to the Union army at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (1863), and surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, Virginia (1865).

George B. McClellan (1826-85)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Union general. At the battle of Antietam, McClellan fought Lee's Confederate army to a draw (1862). McClellan lost favor with President Lincoln and the Union press because of his apparent reluctance to fight and his inability to defeat Lee. Though he was a Unionist, McClellan was also a proslavery Democrat, which caused many Republicans to distrust him.

Robert Gould Shaw (1837-63)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Abolitionist and Union army colonel. Shaw, born into a white, privileged family in Boston, became an ardent abolitionist. During the Civil War, he assumed leadership of the Massachusetts 54th Regiment, the first African American regiment organized in a free state. Shaw and many of his men were killed during the unit's ill-fated assault on Fort Wagner in Charleston, South Carolina. The battle brought attention to the service of African American soldiers in the war. Shaw and the regiment were memorialized by the sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens in a monument on Boston Common.

William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-91)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Union general. Sherman, along with other Union commanders, suffered defeat at the first battle at Bull Run (or Manassas, 1861), but he later formed a wartime partnership with General Ulysses S. Grant that worked to both men's advantage. Sherman distinguished himself in military engagements at Shiloh and in Memphis (both in 1862). When Grant became commander in chief of the Union armies, Sherman succeeded him as supreme commander in the West (1864). Sherman is best known for his destructive march from Atlanta to the sea (1864).

Lorenzo Thomas (1804-75)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Union general. Shortly after the Emancipation Proclamation (1863), Thomas was ordered to the Mississippi Valley to lead the Union's first concerted effort to recruit African Americans into the army. Under his direction, the Bureau of Colored Troops was established, and his actions helped to erode the resistance of white soldiers to incorporating fugitive slaves into military service. By the end of the war, Thomas had recruited more than 75,000 African American soldiers.

Features of the Civil War: North and South Compared
Resource Type: Primary Source
Going to war: Private Edwin Francis Jemison, 2d Louisiana Regiment, C.S.A (c. 1861). He was killed in the battle of Malvern Hill (July 1862).

Features of the Civil War: North and South Compared
Resource Type: Primary Source
Unidentified Union soldier (c. 1863).

Features of the Civil War: North and South Compared
Resource Type: Primary Source
Private John J. Rhodes, Company K, 5th Virginia Regiment, C.S.A (c. 1863).

Features of the Civil War: North and South Compared
Resource Type: Primary Source
Sergeant James W. Travis, 38th Illinois Volunteer Infantry (c. 1863).

African Americans and the Civil War
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This rich variety of primary sources allows students to evaluate the role and historical agency of African Americans. When W. E. B. DuBois wrote Black Reconstruction in America (1935), he quoted a contemporary historian who gave no credit to African Americans for the freedom they won. These documents provide evidence of the roles African Americans played in the history of the Civil War and the larger history of their fight for freedom and equality.

African American Soldiers
Resource Type: Primary Source
This was one of many battles in which the new African American troops distinguished themselves.

The Role of African Americans in the Civil War
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Although there has been no major attack on the view that African Americans played a decisive role in winning the Civil War, it is also true that, with the exception of W.E.B. Du Bois in Black Reconstruction, there were no historians writing prior to 1960, who would have agreed with Foner's interpretation on the decisive role played by African Americans. A teacher explores how, prior to the rise of the civil-rights movement in the mid-1950s, professional historians simply had been uninterested in the behavior of African Americans, either as slaves or as soldiers.

Martin F. Becker (c.1820s-1880)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Abolitionist and Union army officer. Becker was born in Dutch Guyana of an African father and an East Indian mother, and assumed various occupations during his lifetime. In the 1850s, he was an active abolitionist. During the Civil War, he joined the Union navy and then served in the army. He was a member of the 55th Massachusetts Regiment and moved through the ranks from private to quartermaster sergeant to second lieutenant, a position he would have assumed had he not been demobilized. After the war, he was appointed trial justice in South Carolina.

John S. Rock (1825-66)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Lawyer, abolitionist, and physician. Born of free African Americans in New Jersey, Rock earned a medical degree from a medical college in Philadelphia (1852), then went on to study law and was admitted to the Massachusetts bar (1861). Rock helped to assemble the Massachusetts 54th Regiment and sought equal pay for African American soldiers. In 1865 he became the first African American lawyer to be admitted to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court.

Lorenzo Thomas (1804-75)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Union general. Shortly after the Emancipation Proclamation (1863), Thomas was ordered to the Mississippi Valley to lead the Union's first concerted effort to recruit African Americans into the army. Under his direction, the Bureau of Colored Troops was established, and his actions helped to erode the resistance of white soldiers to incorporating fugitive slaves into military service. By the end of the war, Thomas had recruited more than 75,000 African American soldiers.

The Secession Crisis
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This selection of primary sources allows students to interpret the Civil War as an ideological battle, pitting abolitionists against slavery's apologists, and Northerners against Southerners. Students will understand why most of the Southern states chose secession over union.

African Americans and the Civil War
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This rich variety of primary sources allows students to evaluate the role and historical agency of African Americans. When W. E. B. DuBois wrote Black Reconstruction in America (1935), he quoted a contemporary historian who gave no credit to African Americans for the freedom they won. These documents provide evidence of the roles African Americans played in the history of the Civil War and the larger history of their fight for freedom and equality.

Harriet Tubman's Letter to Lincoln
Resource Type: Primary Source
After escaping from slavery in 1849, Harriet Tubman became one of the most prominent abolitionists and a driving force behind the various secret escape routes for slaves. In this quotation from a letter by another great abolitionist, Lydia Maria Child, Tubman seeks to influence President Abraham Lincoln.

Lincoln's Letter to Horace Greeley
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Abraham Lincoln responds on August 22, 1862, to the publisher Horace Greeley, who three days earlier criticized the government for not making emancipation a key war aim. What Greeley did not know and what Lincoln in his letter does not divulge is that a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation was on Lincoln's desk as he wrote this letter to Greeley.

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Read the Emancipation Proclamation to determine whom exactly it set free. Was the Proclamation issued because the war was not going well for the North or because African Americans were demanding that the destruction of slavery become the key aim of the war?

African American Troops Liberating Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the African American presence in the Northern war effort increased, so did the chances of freeing slaves from Southern plantations.

The Emancipation Proclamation
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Eric Foner considers the Emancipation Proclamation to have been the turning point of the Civil War (1861–65), of the history of slavery, and for President Abraham Lincoln (1809–65) himself. Primarily through the work of Ira Berlin and others, historians have learned a great deal about the behavior of slaves before and after the Emancipation Proclamation. What emerged from this investigation is what Foner calls a new synthesis "that sees slavery as the most crucial problem of antebellum American life and the fundamental cause of the Civil War, and the myriad consequences of emancipation as the central themes of the war and Reconstruction."

The Role of African Americans in the Civil War
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Although there has been no major attack on the view that African Americans played a decisive role in winning the Civil War, it is also true that, with the exception of W.E.B. Du Bois in Black Reconstruction, there were no historians writing prior to 1960, who would have agreed with Foner's interpretation on the decisive role played by African Americans. A teacher explores how, prior to the rise of the civil-rights movement in the mid-1950s, professional historians simply had been uninterested in the behavior of African Americans, either as slaves or as soldiers.

General Benjamin Butler to General Winfield Scott
Resource Type: Primary Source
Two Union generals discuss emancipation.

The Second Confiscation Act
Resource Type: Primary Source
The U.S. Congress passsed legislation to inhibit treason against the Union.

The Emancipation Proclamation
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Eric Foner considers the Emancipation Proclamation to have been the turning point of the Civil War (1861–65), of the history of slavery, and for President Abraham Lincoln (1809–65) himself. Primarily through the work of Ira Berlin and others, historians have learned a great deal about the behavior of slaves before and after the Emancipation Proclamation. What emerged from this investigation is what Foner calls a new synthesis "that sees slavery as the most crucial problem of antebellum American life and the fundamental cause of the Civil War, and the myriad consequences of emancipation as the central themes of the war and Reconstruction."

The Road to Emancipation: Lincoln's Early Actions
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Abraham Lincoln.

The Road to Emancipation: Characteristics
Resource Type: Primary Source

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Read the Emancipation Proclamation to determine whom exactly it set free. Was the Proclamation issued because the war was not going well for the North or because African Americans were demanding that the destruction of slavery become the key aim of the war?

African American Soldiers
Resource Type: Primary Source
This was one of many battles in which the new African American troops distinguished themselves.

The Emancipation Proclamation
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Eric Foner considers the Emancipation Proclamation to have been the turning point of the Civil War (1861–65), of the history of slavery, and for President Abraham Lincoln (1809–65) himself. Primarily through the work of Ira Berlin and others, historians have learned a great deal about the behavior of slaves before and after the Emancipation Proclamation. What emerged from this investigation is what Foner calls a new synthesis "that sees slavery as the most crucial problem of antebellum American life and the fundamental cause of the Civil War, and the myriad consequences of emancipation as the central themes of the war and Reconstruction."

The Role of African Americans in the Civil War
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Although there has been no major attack on the view that African Americans played a decisive role in winning the Civil War, it is also true that, with the exception of W.E.B. Du Bois in Black Reconstruction, there were no historians writing prior to 1960, who would have agreed with Foner's interpretation on the decisive role played by African Americans. A teacher explores how, prior to the rise of the civil-rights movement in the mid-1950s, professional historians simply had been uninterested in the behavior of African Americans, either as slaves or as soldiers.

The Second Confiscation Act
Resource Type: Primary Source
The U.S. Congress passsed legislation to inhibit treason against the Union.

The Thirteenth Amendment
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is one of the legacies of the Civil War.

The Emancipation Proclamation
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Eric Foner considers the Emancipation Proclamation to have been the turning point of the Civil War (1861–65), of the history of slavery, and for President Abraham Lincoln (1809–65) himself. Primarily through the work of Ira Berlin and others, historians have learned a great deal about the behavior of slaves before and after the Emancipation Proclamation. What emerged from this investigation is what Foner calls a new synthesis "that sees slavery as the most crucial problem of antebellum American life and the fundamental cause of the Civil War, and the myriad consequences of emancipation as the central themes of the war and Reconstruction."

Black Soldiers: Service and Citizenship
Resource Type: Primary Source
Physician, abolitionist, and Union army major. Delaney, the son of free African Americans, was educated in Pittsburgh and studied medicine at Harvard. He was active in organizations that promoted the protection of fugitive slaves and the advancement of blacks. During the 1850s, he supported black emigration to Africa and led an expedition to the Niger Valley. During the Civil War, he recruited African American troops for the Union and was commissioned to be the first black field officer in the Union army.

Urban Society: Central Park and Social Reform
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This microhistory of Central Park in New York City provides students with a laboratory for learning how social reformers attempted to clean the city of its slums and promote the well-being of its residents. These tools can be applied to the study of any large city.

A Man Knows a Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
Military service, especially in battle, was often seen as a rite of passage that turned boys into men. Physical scarring or maiming served as the visible symbol of manhood tested and earned through combat.

The Thirteenth Amendment
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is one of the legacies of the Civil War.

The Role of African Americans in the Civil War
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Although there has been no major attack on the view that African Americans played a decisive role in winning the Civil War, it is also true that, with the exception of W.E.B. Du Bois in Black Reconstruction, there were no historians writing prior to 1960, who would have agreed with Foner's interpretation on the decisive role played by African Americans. A teacher explores how, prior to the rise of the civil-rights movement in the mid-1950s, professional historians simply had been uninterested in the behavior of African Americans, either as slaves or as soldiers.


Refine Browse

Historical thinking 

Discovering primary sources (38) 

Interpreting and analysing (36) 

Narrating history (32) 

Resource types 

Video Transcripts (22) 

Text Excerpts (8) 





CAHO is being provided to you for your own use. Any copying or distribution of CAHO materials is prohibited.