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APUSH-19-A

Education


1.  Colleges and universities

2.  Scientific advances


Resources:

History as Destiny: The Case of New York City
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant interactive tools:
Educational Establishments
Educational Establishments

Urban Crisis: Disease, Crime, and Space
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant transcripts:
Poverty's Fault

The Old South
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
The Cotton Kingdom: The Industrial Revolution

The Crisis of Victorianism
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Jane Addams: Domesticating the Public World

Relevant interactive tools:
Young Roosevelt sought strength and vigor.
Young Roosevelt sought strength and vigor.

The Search for a Scientific Culture
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
The Physical World Transformed
Basic Assumptions Challenged
The Tension Between Faith and Science
The Impact of The Origin of Species
Responses of Protestant Leaders
Science as Surrogate Religion
The Morality of Science
Conclusion
Biographies

Relevant texts:
"The Fixation of Belief" by Charles Peirce (1877)

Relevant transcripts:
The model offered by Darwin thrilled a generation of young scientists and intellectuals.

Margaret Sanger on Working Women
Resource Type: Primary Source
Margaret Sanger became nationally famous for organizing a birth-control movement. In this 1915 issue of the International Socialist Review, Sanger discusses working women.

Mrs. Marion Crocker on the Conservation Imperative
Resource Type: Primary Source
Mrs. Marion Crocker of the General Federation of Women's Clubs wholeheartedly endorsed the conservation movement, and the scientific basis on which it stood, in this 1912 speech to the Fourth Annual Conservation Congress.

Sumner on Social Darwinism
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Graham Sumner was an American social scientist influenced by Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin. Sumner applied Darwin's evolutionary theory to human society.

The Divorce of Theory and Practice
Resource Type: Primary Source
George Santayana (1863-1952).

Women and the Progressive Era
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The discussion of women at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century is often separated into different chapters and topics. This DBQ asks students to combine what they have learned about American society and about the changing roles and perceptions of women to evaluate the women's movement during the Progressive Era.

The First Loan Fund Recipient
Resource Type: Primary Source
Frances Johnson was the first recipient of a college loan from a branch of the American Association of University Women. This enabled her to attend Cornell University. She is discussed in the minutes of the branch, published in 1925.

Marriage Rates of Alumnae
Resource Type: Primary Source
This table shows the marriage rates of women who graduated from a variety of American colleges during the period of 1820–1930.

The Physical World Transformed
Resource Type: Primary Source
Thomas Edison in his workshop, as depicted on the front page of Harper's Weekly (August 2, 1879)

The Tension Between Faith and Science
Resource Type: Primary Source
Knowledge through verification: French chemist Louis Pasteur at work (c. 1870).

The Morality of Science
Resource Type: Primary Source
Scientific collaboration: British physicist Sir Oliver Lodge at work in his laboratory with two colleagues (c. 1892).

The Cotton Kingdom: The Industrial Revolution
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1793, while working as a tutor on a Georgia plantation, Whitney came up with the idea of removing the seeds from cotton by machine. Though every schoolchild recalls "Eli Whitney and the cotton gin," few realize the stark innovation that such a machine was. The gin (short for engine) in essence made it possible for cotton to become "king," as it picked approximately 50 times more cotton seeds per day than any enslaved worker could. Cotton prices soared over time and made the South a world leader in supplying cotton.

Annual Report of the Interments
Resource Type: Primary Source
Dr. John Hoskins Griscom (1809–74), a Quaker physician, founded the New York Academy of Medicine and pioneered the field of public health. His advocacy for sanitation, medical care, and adequate housing led to the great reforms of the Progressive Era after the Civil War.

Evolution and Religion
Resource Type: Primary Source
Reverend Henry Ward Beecher, one of the most famous Congregational preachers of his day, involved himself in controversy when he accepted Charles Darwin's theories of evolution.

Out in the Automobile
Resource Type: Primary Source
The comedian Arthur Collins and the tenor Byron Harlan wrote lyrics for many humorous songs. "Out in the Automobile" pokes fun at early-twentieth-century cars.

Mechanized Home Laundry
Resource Type: Primary Source
This drawing dramatically illustrates the increasing mechanization of domestic life during the second decade of the twentieth century.

Social Darwinism: Its Influence and Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Social Darwinism is usually understood as an ideology that justified survival of the fittest, that argued against government intervention or social reform to improve society. The documents in this DBQ, however, point to the complexity of social-Darwinist thought, considering how a progressive version fueled the Progressive Era and how a conservative strand exerted tremendous influence in American political thought.


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