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APUSH-19

Intellectual and Cultural Movements


A.  Education

1.  Colleges and universities

2.  Scientific advances

B.  Professionalism and the social sciences

C.  Realism in literature and art

D.  Mass culture

1.  Use of leisure

2.  Publishing and journalism


Resources:

History as Destiny: The Case of New York City
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant interactive tools:
Educational Establishments
Educational Establishments

Colonial City: Revolutionary Battleground
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant transcripts:
Early Nineteeth-Century New York
Horace Greeley on New York

Urban Crisis: Fire and Water
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant transcripts:
The Urban Response
Moving to Get Rid of Volunteer Fire Companies
Volunteers Oppose Professionalization

Urban Crisis: Disease, Crime, and Space
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Central Park

Relevant texts:
Creating Valuable Land

Relevant transcripts:
The Most Important Park
Poverty's Fault

Relevant interactive tools:
Central Park Bird's Eye View. Lithograph by Bachman (1863).
Design Element, Part 1
Design Element, Part 2
Central Park Bird's Eye View. Lithograph by Bachman (1863).
Design Element, Part 1
Design Element, Part 2

The Old South
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
The Cotton Kingdom: The Industrial Revolution

The Crisis of Victorianism
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
Turner and the End of the Frontier
The Threat of Change
The Divorce of Theory and Practice
The Victorian Mind
The Quest for Vitality
The Example of Theodore Roosevelt
Jane Addams: Domesticating the Public World
Conclusion

Relevant texts:
Frederick Jackson Turner "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" (1893)
Theodore Roosevelt "The Strenuous Life" (1899)

Relevant transcripts:
Professor Blake introduces the e-seminar.
People were confronting life-and-death, personal questions.
American culture did seem to be floundering.
Gilman emphasized the public realm.
Gilman's response differed from Addams's.

Relevant interactive tools:
Turner argued that Americans' New World experience had aided democracy.
Turner argued that Americans' New World experience had aided democracy.
The 1890s were a time of conflict.
The 1890s were a time of conflict.
Built environments emphasized separate realms.
Built environments emphasized separate realms.
Young Roosevelt sought strength and vigor.
Young Roosevelt sought strength and vigor.

The Search for a Scientific Culture
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
The Physical World Transformed
Basic Assumptions Challenged
The Tension Between Faith and Science
The Higher Criticism
The Impact of The Origin of Species
Revolutionary Implications
Responses of Protestant Leaders
Science as Surrogate Religion
The Morality of Science
Conclusion
Biographies

Relevant texts:
"The Fixation of Belief" by Charles Peirce (1877)

Relevant transcripts:
People had believed that culture was meant to transmit timeless moral truths.
Professor Blake discusses this third implication.
The model offered by Darwin thrilled a generation of young scientists and intellectuals.
Beecher and Fiske offered an optimistic resolution of the conflict.
This vision of science as surrogate religion addressed concerns about the erosion of moral values.
Spencer and Sumner argued against attempts to reform society.
Professor Blake offers concluding remarks.

Intellectual and Cultural History of the United States, 1890–1945—E-Seminar 1, The Crisis of Victorianism
Resource Type: E-Seminar
Between the end of the Civil War and 1900, educated Americans reacted against Victorian values. In the first in a series of e-seminars, Casey Blake describes the new attitudes about the future, the separation of the sexes, masculinity, and the role of women. He concludes by reflecting on the beginnings of modernism at the end of the nineteenth century.

The Threat of Change
Resource Type: Primary Source
Middle-class family, c. 1865: a long-unquestioned configuration.

Intellectual and Cultural History of the United States, 1890-1945—E-Seminar 2, The Search for a Scientific Culture
Resource Type: E-Seminar
By the end of the nineteenth century, science and technology were exerting a tremendous influence on life in the United States. In this second e-seminar of the series, Casey Nelson Blake explores why Darwin's ideas seemed so revolutionary and how Darwinism helped to move the United States toward a more secular and scientific modern culture.

The Tension Between Faith and Science
Resource Type: Primary Source
Knowledge through revelation: evangelist Dwight Moody preaching (1876).

Responses of Protestant Leaders
Resource Type: Primary Source
The prominent preacher and lecturer Henry Ward Beecher (1813-87), whose published works included Evolution and Religion (1885).

Science as Surrogate Religion
Resource Type: Primary Source
Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), a philosopher and early proponent of pragmatism.

Science as Surrogate Religion
Resource Type: Primary Source
In photographs, prominent nineteenth-century scientists were often embued with a quasi-religious aura. This photograph of Jollivet Castelot in his laboratory captures the French scientist in a meditative pose (c. 1880).

The Yellow Wall Paper
Resource Type: Primary Source
Charlotte Perkins Gilman was a well-educated American woman who became depressed after her marriage in 1884. Diagnosed with neurasthenia and prescribed the "rest-cure,"she later wrote about her experience in The Yellow Wall Paper, published in 1899.

Scientific Advances and Thinking
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
By the late-nineteenth century, science and scientific thought influenced American intellectual life and culture. The documents attached to this DBQ allow students to assess how the achievements of science were both admired and feared.

The Warfare of Science with Theology
Resource Type: Primary Source
Andrew D. White was an American educator who wrote about the controversial reactions to Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species in his book, A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom, published in 1896.

Brooklyn Bridge
Resource Type: Primary Source
An important American modernist painter, John Marin (1870–1953) established his reputation with his work in watercolors. Although known for his landscape paintings, Marin expresses his interest in urban life in Brooklyn Bridge, which associates the excitement of New York with the famous bridge. The bridge connects Manhattan to Brooklyn and had been completed about thirty years earlier, in 1883.

Principles of American Reform Judaism
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1885, American Reform rabbis met in Pittsburgh to outline the basic principles of American Reform Judaism.

A New Masculinity
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Historians are grappling with the changing definitions of American male identity that developed at the end of the nineteenth century. Casey Blake argues that American men were looking for ways to "compensate" for what they regarded as the feminine elements of modern life, particularly those brought about by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In response, a new definition of manhood, what Blake terms "aggressive male individualism," emerged. A teacher examines the interpretations of Gail Bederman and Susan Curtis.

Young Generation's Response to Victorian Culture
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Casey Blake explains why the generation of educated Americans that came of age during the 1880s and 1890s rejected the Victorian culture of their parents, which focused on maintaining rigid control and creating an order to life. A teacher examines competing interpretations and finds that historian George Cotkin does not regard the break from Victorian culture as having been as dramatic as Blake and Lewis Erenberg insist.

Science and Religion
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Casey Blake argues that Americans in the late nineteenth century were excited about new scientific developments but were also somewhat fearful—or at least ambivalent—about how science might alter religious and moral values. Historians differ on the nature and extent of the tension between religious faith and a scientific approach to knowledge, which Americans sought to resolve. A teacher examines the subtleties of Charles Rosenberg, James Turner, and Paul Croce.

Social Darwinism
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
The doctrine of Social Darwinism was historically interpreted in a variety of ways, and as such it was used to defend a host of ideological perspectives, which in some cases conflicted with one another. A teacher examines the competing interpretations of Richard Hofstadter, Robert Bannister, and Mike Hawkins.

Women and Social Reform
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation, students will be assigned the role of a prominent, late-nineteenth-century, middle-class American woman. The goal is to understand the changing perceptions and roles of women in Progressive-era America, as they took on leadership roles in a variety of associational groups such as the YWCA and the Red Cross.

Social Darwinism
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
This simulation captures American society in 1900 and presents a fictional meeting of educators. In their respective roles, students will debate the ways in which educational reform can improve American society. Students will understand how different strands of social-Darwinist thought informed American life, culture, and politics, imposing a legacy which continues to affect American education as well as the larger society.

Margaret Sanger on Working Women
Resource Type: Primary Source
Margaret Sanger became nationally famous for organizing a birth-control movement. In this 1915 issue of the International Socialist Review, Sanger discusses working women.

Mrs. Marion Crocker on the Conservation Imperative
Resource Type: Primary Source
Mrs. Marion Crocker of the General Federation of Women's Clubs wholeheartedly endorsed the conservation movement, and the scientific basis on which it stood, in this 1912 speech to the Fourth Annual Conservation Congress.

Sumner on Social Darwinism
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Graham Sumner was an American social scientist influenced by Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin. Sumner applied Darwin's evolutionary theory to human society.

The Divorce of Theory and Practice
Resource Type: Primary Source
George Santayana (1863-1952).

Women and the Progressive Era
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The discussion of women at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century is often separated into different chapters and topics. This DBQ asks students to combine what they have learned about American society and about the changing roles and perceptions of women to evaluate the women's movement during the Progressive Era.

The First Loan Fund Recipient
Resource Type: Primary Source
Frances Johnson was the first recipient of a college loan from a branch of the American Association of University Women. This enabled her to attend Cornell University. She is discussed in the minutes of the branch, published in 1925.

Marriage Rates of Alumnae
Resource Type: Primary Source
This table shows the marriage rates of women who graduated from a variety of American colleges during the period of 1820–1930.

The Physical World Transformed
Resource Type: Primary Source
Thomas Edison in his workshop, as depicted on the front page of Harper's Weekly (August 2, 1879)

The Tension Between Faith and Science
Resource Type: Primary Source
Knowledge through verification: French chemist Louis Pasteur at work (c. 1870).

The Morality of Science
Resource Type: Primary Source
Scientific collaboration: British physicist Sir Oliver Lodge at work in his laboratory with two colleagues (c. 1892).

The Cotton Kingdom: The Industrial Revolution
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1793, while working as a tutor on a Georgia plantation, Whitney came up with the idea of removing the seeds from cotton by machine. Though every schoolchild recalls "Eli Whitney and the cotton gin," few realize the stark innovation that such a machine was. The gin (short for engine) in essence made it possible for cotton to become "king," as it picked approximately 50 times more cotton seeds per day than any enslaved worker could. Cotton prices soared over time and made the South a world leader in supplying cotton.

Annual Report of the Interments
Resource Type: Primary Source
Dr. John Hoskins Griscom (1809–74), a Quaker physician, founded the New York Academy of Medicine and pioneered the field of public health. His advocacy for sanitation, medical care, and adequate housing led to the great reforms of the Progressive Era after the Civil War.

Evolution and Religion
Resource Type: Primary Source
Reverend Henry Ward Beecher, one of the most famous Congregational preachers of his day, involved himself in controversy when he accepted Charles Darwin's theories of evolution.

Out in the Automobile
Resource Type: Primary Source
The comedian Arthur Collins and the tenor Byron Harlan wrote lyrics for many humorous songs. "Out in the Automobile" pokes fun at early-twentieth-century cars.

Mechanized Home Laundry
Resource Type: Primary Source
This drawing dramatically illustrates the increasing mechanization of domestic life during the second decade of the twentieth century.

Social Darwinism: Its Influence and Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Social Darwinism is usually understood as an ideology that justified survival of the fittest, that argued against government intervention or social reform to improve society. The documents in this DBQ, however, point to the complexity of social-Darwinist thought, considering how a progressive version fueled the Progressive Era and how a conservative strand exerted tremendous influence in American political thought.

Annual Report of the Interments
Resource Type: Primary Source
Dr. John Hoskins Griscom (1809–74), a Quaker physician, founded the New York Academy of Medicine and pioneered the field of public health. His advocacy for sanitation, medical care, and adequate housing led to the great reforms of the Progressive Era after the Civil War.

The Environmental Movements
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The larger issues of western expansion, industrialization, urbanization, and progressivism are explored in this DBQ on the environmental movements that arose at the end of the nineteenth century.

The Principles of Scientific Management
Resource Type: Primary Source
Frederick W. Taylor was a mechanical engineer who wrote extensively about scientific management, a method of managing groups of people based on scientific principles, as part of progressive notions of efficiency. His ideas influenced business management theory in America and around the world. The Principles of Scientific Management is a collection of his essays published in 1911.

Mrs. Marion Crocker on the Conservation Imperative
Resource Type: Primary Source
Mrs. Marion Crocker of the General Federation of Women's Clubs wholeheartedly endorsed the conservation movement, and the scientific basis on which it stood, in this 1912 speech to the Fourth Annual Conservation Congress.

Sumner on Social Darwinism
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Graham Sumner was an American social scientist influenced by Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin. Sumner applied Darwin's evolutionary theory to human society.

The Frontier in American History
Resource Type: Primary Source
After the 1890 census, the historian Frederick Jackson Turner wrote an essay on the role of the American frontier in shaping the American character.

Turner and the End of the Frontier
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Columbian Exposition of 1893.

The Victorian Mind
Resource Type: Primary Source
Glass cases (Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford) typical of nineteenth-century museums.

The Environmental Movements
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The larger issues of western expansion, industrialization, urbanization, and progressivism are explored in this DBQ on the environmental movements that arose at the end of the nineteenth century.

Railroad Ad
Resource Type: Primary Source
This Northern Pacific Railroad advertisement appeared in a 1900 issue of Harper's Weekly. The advertisement promotes travel to Yellowstone National Park.

Margaret Sanger on Working Women
Resource Type: Primary Source
Margaret Sanger became nationally famous for organizing a birth-control movement. In this 1915 issue of the International Socialist Review, Sanger discusses working women.

Kodak Camera Ad
Resource Type: Primary Source
This advertisement for Kodak cameras appeared in a 1900 issue of the magazine Youth's Companion.

Remington Typewriter Company Ad
Resource Type: Primary Source
In a 1905 advertisement, the Remington Typewriter Company used two letters by Mark Twain to illustrate how his attitude toward the typewriter had changed over a period of thirty years.

Out in the Automobile
Resource Type: Primary Source
The comedian Arthur Collins and the tenor Byron Harlan wrote lyrics for many humorous songs. "Out in the Automobile" pokes fun at early-twentieth-century cars.

Urban Society: Central Park and Social Reform
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This microhistory of Central Park in New York City provides students with a laboratory for learning how social reformers attempted to clean the city of its slums and promote the well-being of its residents. These tools can be applied to the study of any large city.

Railroad Ad
Resource Type: Primary Source
This Northern Pacific Railroad advertisement appeared in a 1900 issue of Harper's Weekly. The advertisement promotes travel to Yellowstone National Park.

Growth of Woman's Christian Temperance Union
Resource Type: Primary Source
This 1959 chart shows the growth in membership of women involved in the movement to prohibit the consumption of alcohol.

The Impact of The Origin of Species
Resource Type: Primary Source
Darwinism was charicatured not only in the press but in other forms of popular culture as well. The refrain of this novelty song with music by "O'Rangoutang" is "It certainly is most absurd/ The fact can never be!/ My great grand daddy never was/ A 'Monkey' up a tree" (1874).

Tenement Slum
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jacob Riis, a reporter for the New York Sun newspaper, helped raise awareness about the conditions of the urban poor with his 1890 publication, How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York. This book would later influence Theodore Roosevelt.


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