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APUSH-2

America and the British Empire, 1650-1754


A.  Chesapeake country

B.  Growth of New England

C.  Restoration colonies

D.  Mercantilism; the Dominion of New England

E.  Origins of slavery


Resources:

History as Destiny: The Case of New York City
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant interactive tools:
Cities as "Transportation Breaks"
Cities as "Transportation Breaks"
Charleston
Philadelphia
Charleston
Philadelphia

Colonial City: Revolutionary Battleground
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
British New York
British New York

Relevant transcripts:
The Dutch Return
Heterogenous But Unhappy In 1703
Why Boston Declined

Relevant interactive tools:
The Dutch and English Conflict, Part 1
The Dutch and English Conflict, Part 2
The Dutch and English Conflict, Part 1
The Dutch and English Conflict, Part 2
Becoming an English City
Eighteenth–Century New York
Leisler's Rebellion
The Slave Rebellion of 1741
Becoming an English City
Eighteenth–Century New York
Leisler's Rebellion
The Slave Rebellion of 1741
New York Versus Boston or Philadelphia
New York Versus Boston or Philadelphia
The Dutch Heritage
The Dutch Heritage

The Origins of Slavery in the New World
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
Slavery in History: The Legacy of 1492
The Triangular Trades: The Slave Gun Cycle
The Triangular Trades: Continuity of Slavery
Slavery in The Americas
Slavery in the Americas: Free to Forced Labor
Slavery in the Americas: Plantation Agriculture
Laws and Statutes: Undefined Legal Status
Laws and Statues: Emerging Racism
Laws and Statues: Codifying Slavery
Laws and Statutes: Slave Labor Expands
Laws and Statues: The Virginia Slave Code
Slavery and Empire: The British Empire
Slavery and Empire
Slavery and Empire: A Slave Narrative
Systems of Slavery: Diversity
Systems of Slavery: The Chesapeake
Systems of Slavery: The South
Systems of Slavery: The North
Slave Resistance

Relevant texts:
Text from the 1662 slavery act passed by the Virginia House of Burgesses.
Text from the the Slave Code, the 1705 slavery statutes passed by the Virginia House of Burgesses to regularize slavery.
Excerpt from An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith (1776).
Text from the 1662 slavery act passed by the Virginia House of Burgesses.
Excerpt from Olaudah Equiano, The Interresting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavas Vassa, the African.

Relevant transcripts:
Professor Foner introduces the debate on slavery and freedom in American History
Professor Foner compares the benefits and misfortunes resulting from the "discovery" of America.
Professor Foner discusses the economic underpinnings of slavery.
Professor Foner discusses Bacon's Rebellion.
Professor Foner compares slave societies throughout history.
Professor Foner discusses the misery of the Middle Passage.
Professor Foner explains the social and economic impact of rice cultivation in the South.

Relevant interactive tools:
Professor Foner explains how European monarchs and merchants wanted to bypass the Arab, Berber, and Muslim middlemen, who dominated the international trade routes acress Africa and the Middle and Near East to India and China. A direct water route instead, from Europe to China, around the southern tip of Africa, promised the Europeans greater control and wealth.
Professor Foner explains how European monarchs and merchants wanted to bypass the Arab, Berber, and Muslim middlemen, who dominated the international trade routes acress Africa and the Middle and Near East to India and China. A direct water route instead, from Europe to China, around the southern tip of Africa, promised the Europeans greater control and wealth.
Providing a long-term perspective on the history of slavery, Professor Foner argues that slavery in the New World was different from slavery in Africa.
Providing a long-term perspective on the history of slavery, Professor Foner argues that slavery in the New World was different from slavery in Africa.
Professor Foner discusses the tobacco-based system of slavery in the Chesapeake
Professor Foner discusses the tobacco-based system of slavery in the Chesapeake

The History of the City of New York—E-Seminar 2, Colonial City: Revolutionary Battleground
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In his second e-seminar, Kenneth T. Jackson traces New York City's commercial character back to the days of Dutch New Amsterdam. He then examines New York's role in the Revolutionary War and the remarkable growth it experienced largely as a result of the Erie Canal.

Discovery and Settlement: New Amsterdam
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The present-day issues of tolerance and diversity are explored in colonial society. These primary sources provide contemporary perceptions of Native Americans, African Americans, Jews, and European settlers.

The New World: Origins of Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The following primary sources, focusing on Bacon's Rebellion, help students understand the condition of freemen and indentured servants on the eve of the revolt and how colonial legislation helped institutionalize slavery in the southern colonies.

Colonial Society and Economy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Colonial society (Virginia in particular) changed from a society with slaves to a slave society, where slavery was the foundation of the economic and social order. This selection of primary sources allows students to understand how commerce and agricultural production caused slavery to replace indentured servitude in the southern colonies and to create new forms of wealth.

Bacon's Rebellion: Colonial Society and Politics
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation, which focuses on Bacon's Rebellion, students will recreate colonial society with a view to understanding how the legal and economic infrastructure of the colonies facilitated the development of slavery.

Slavery in the Americas: Plantation Agriculture
Resource Type: Primary Source
Tobacco vendors, most but not all of them English, began advertising on illustrated sheets or cards in the eighteenth century. This "potent herb" label is likely an eighteenth-century illustration.

Slavery in the Americas: Plantation Agriculture
Resource Type: Primary Source
This engraving of the Algonquian village of Secotan is based on a watercolor by John White, who had traveled to a part of "Virginia" that is now known as the outer banks of North Carolina (1590).

Systems of Slavery: Diversity
Resource Type: Primary Source
A British cartographer counters the prevalence of French maps with the British view of the New World. The territory highlighted in yellow shows the French presence on the fur-bearing western and northern frontiers. Virginia and the Chesapeake are also delineated (1755).

African American Cultures
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Old Plantation. Painting by an unknown artist (c. 1800). A spirited gathering of African Americans dancing to and playing music.

Systems of Slavery: The North
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Newport Historical Society cannot determine whether the black child depicted in this portrait of the Potter family in Rhode Island is free or slave. The adult male figure here may be the John Potter who manumitted his slaves after becoming a Quaker. The British influence on the fashion and tastes of American colonial elites is conveyed through dress (c.1740-70).

Mapping Early New York City
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this innovative simulation students learn the skills of mapping. Although focused here on the early history of New York City, these skills can be applied to any urban center in any time period.

Slavery and Empire
Resource Type: Primary Source
The privateer Jason, built in France in 1747 and later captured by the British, displays the British flag, a symbol of Britain's mastery of the seas and the international trade in slaves in the eighteenth century.

Systems of Slavery: The North
Resource Type: Primary Source
Slave market in the port city of New York (1730). Slavery figured in the economy of the Northern colonies though it was not central to it.

Mapping Early New York City
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this innovative simulation students learn the skills of mapping. Although focused here on the early history of New York City, these skills can be applied to any urban center in any time period.

Slavery in History: New World Encounters
Resource Type: Primary Source
This detail of the same map from Theatrum orbis terrarum (1570) depicts the African continent, showing how both the interior and exterior were well known to European travelers, explorers, and cartographers. Notice the detailing of port cities on the west coast as well as the important towns and rivers inland.

Excerpt from An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith (1776).
Resource Type: Primary Source

Slavery in History: The Legacy of 1492
Resource Type: Primary Source
This hand-colored facsimile of an engraving (1564) by Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues shows French settlers arriving on the Florida coast.

The Triangular Trades: The Slave Gun Cycle
Resource Type: Primary Source
The king of Dahomey leading armed women to war (1793).

The Triangular Trades: The Slave Gun Cycle
Resource Type: Primary Source
The king of Dahomey with soldiers and members of his court receiving British visitors (1793).

The Triangular Trades: The Slave Gun Cycle
Resource Type: Primary Source
Europeans buying slaves on the African coast (1729).

The Triangular Trades: Continuity of Slavery
Resource Type: Primary Source
The king of Congo's residence, where people gathering water to be carried up to the city that surrounds the king's dwelling illustrate a form of slavery that existed in Africa (mid-eighteenth century).

Slavery in the Americas: Plantation Agriculture
Resource Type: Primary Source
Tobacco vendors, most but not all of them English, began advertising on illustrated sheets or cards in the eighteenth century. This "potent herb" label is likely an eighteenth-century illustration.

Laws and Statutes: Undefined Legal Status
Resource Type: Primary Source
This detail from an eighteenth-century handkerchief shows the careers of the good and bad servants, William Goodchild and Jack Idle. Transportation in this context meant being sent to the British colonies, usually as punishment for crimes committed.

Slavery and Emancipation—E-Seminar 1, The Origins of Slavery in the New World
Resource Type: E-Seminar
Nearly 150 years after its abolition, slavery remains one of the central institutions defining American history and nationality. This e-seminar examines the origins and development of the transatlantic slave trade and the impact of slavery on colonial America during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. New World slavery became more oppressive than previous forms, and the underpinnings of the institutionalization of slavery in America included new racist attitudes.

Slavery and Empire: A Slave Narrative
Resource Type: Primary Source
Olaudah Equiano. Frontispiece, The Interresting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavas Vassa, the African, 3d ed. (1790).

Excerpt from Olaudah Equiano, The Interresting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavas Vassa, the African.
Resource Type: Primary Source

Systems of Slavery: The South
Resource Type: Primary Source
Mulberry Plantation in South Carolina. The steep roofs are of slave housing, reflecting a form of African architecture (c. 1770).

Systems of Slavery: The South
Resource Type: Primary Source
The labor-intensive process of rice cultivation on a plantation near Savannah, Georgia (1867).

Systems of Slavery: The South
Resource Type: Primary Source
Charleston, with its intense maritime activities and fine urban architecture (1737–39).

Systems of Slavery: The North
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Newport Historical Society cannot determine whether the black child depicted in this portrait of the Potter family in Rhode Island is free or slave. The adult male figure here may be the John Potter who manumitted his slaves after becoming a Quaker. The British influence on the fashion and tastes of American colonial elites is conveyed through dress (c.1740-70).

Slave Resistance
Resource Type: Primary Source
A newspaper advertisement offering a reward for the return of a runaway slave (Virginia Gazette, February 15, 1770).

Slave Resistance
Resource Type: Primary Source
A slave is burned at the stake after the 1741 slave rebellion in New York City.

Southern Society: Religion and Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Using this DBQ, students will examine the paradoxical role of religion in the lives of slaves in the antebellum South. Different kinds of religion are explored as students confront the ways in which religion served to liberate or to oppress slaves.

Equiano: A Slave's Autobiography
Resource Type: Primary Source
Olaudah Equiano was enslaved as a child after he and his sister were kidnapped in Africa. His autobiography offers a rare comparison of African and American cultures.


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