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Foreign Policy, 1865-1914

A.  Seward and the purchase of Alaska

B.  The new imperialism

1.  Blaine and Latin America

2.  International Darwinism: missionaries, politicians, and naval expansionists

3.  Spanish-American War

3a.  Cuban independence

3b.  Debate on Philippines

C.  The Far East: John Hay and the Open Door

D.  Theodore Roosevelt

1.  The Panama Canal

2.  Roosevelt Corollary

3.  Far East

E.  Taft and dollar diplomacy

F.  Wilson and moral diplomacy


The Crisis of Victorianism
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Roosevelt and Public Life

Relevant texts:
Theodore Roosevelt "The Strenuous Life" (1899)
Theodore Roosevelt "The Strenuous Life" (1899)

Relevant transcripts:
Roosevelt left important legacies.

The Search for a Scientific Culture
Resource Type: E-Seminar

The Victorian Mind
Resource Type: Primary Source
Queen Victoria in the fiftieth year of her reign.

The White Man's Burden
Resource Type: Primary Source
This cartoon, referring to Rudyard Kipling's poem of the same name, was published as the Spanish-American War ended and the insurrection in the Philippines against the Americans began.

The Higher Criticism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Nineteenth-century Christians supported missionary efforts throughout the world. Missionaries were often forced to confront a diversity of value systems, which challenged their own assumptions about the universality of Protestant, Victorian morals.

Intellectual and Cultural History of the United States, 1890–1945—E-Seminar 1, The Crisis of Victorianism
Resource Type: E-Seminar
Between the end of the Civil War and 1900, educated Americans reacted against Victorian values. In the first in a series of e-seminars, Casey Blake describes the new attitudes about the future, the separation of the sexes, masculinity, and the role of women. He concludes by reflecting on the beginnings of modernism at the end of the nineteenth century.

Roosevelt and Public Life
Resource Type: Primary Source
Roosevelt as commander of the first Volunteer U.S. Cavalry during the Spanish-American War.

Roosevelt and Public Life
Resource Type: Primary Source
Addressing a crowd in Denver.

A New Masculinity
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Historians are grappling with the changing definitions of American male identity that developed at the end of the nineteenth century. Casey Blake argues that American men were looking for ways to "compensate" for what they regarded as the feminine elements of modern life, particularly those brought about by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In response, a new definition of manhood, what Blake terms "aggressive male individualism," emerged. A teacher examines the interpretations of Gail Bederman and Susan Curtis.

Roosevelt on Physical Health
Resource Type: Primary Source
The future president, Theodore Roosevelt, discusses the importance of physical health and strength for American males.

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Historical thinking 

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Interpreting and analysing (1) 

Narrating history (3) 

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