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APUSH-22

Progressive Era


A.  Origins of Progressivism

1.  Progressive attitudes and motives

2.  Muckrakers

3.  Social Gospel

B.  Municipal, state, and national reforms

1.  Political: suffrage

2.  Social and economic: regulation

C.  Socialism: alternatives

D.  Black America

1.  Washington, Du Bois, and Garvey

2.  Urban migration

3.  Civil rights organizations

E.  Women's role: family, work, education, unionization, and suffrage

F.  Roosevelt's Square Deal

1.  Managing the trusts

2.  Conservation

G.  Taft

1.  Pinchot-Ballinger controversy

2.  Payne-Aldrich Tariff

H.  Wilson's New Freedom

1.  Tariffs

2.  Banking reform

3.  Antitrust Act of 1914


Resources:

Urban Crisis: Fire and Water
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant texts:
Telegraphs and Building Codes
General Slocum
New Fire Codes

Relevant transcripts:
Solving the Fire Problem
Volunteers Oppose Professionalization

Relevant interactive tools:
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, Part 1
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, Part 2
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, Part 1
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, Part 2

The Crisis of Victorianism
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
The Doctrine of Separate Spheres
The Younger Generation's Response
The Quest for Vitality
The Search for New Identities
Conclusion

Relevant texts:
George Santayana "The Genteel Tradition in American Philosophy" (1913)

Relevant transcripts:
Professor Blake introduces the e-seminar.
American culture did seem to be floundering.
Both men and women had problems with this separation.
Young people wanted to break through these divisions.
Addams and Gilman foreshadowed modern feminism.
Addams came to see herself as a kind of pioneer for young intellectuals.
Gilman emphasized the public realm.
Gilman's response differed from Addams's.

Relevant interactive tools:
The lecture spoke to both men's and women's concerns.
The lecture spoke to both men's and women's concerns.
Built environments emphasized separate realms.
Built environments emphasized separate realms.

The Search for a Scientific Culture
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
The Progressive View
Conclusion
Biographies

Relevant texts:
"Mind as a Social Factor" by Lester Frank Ward (1884)

Relevant transcripts:
Ward's viewpoint laid the groundwork for pragmatism and later progressive thinkers.

Intellectual and Cultural History of the United States, 1890–1945—E-Seminar 1, The Crisis of Victorianism
Resource Type: E-Seminar
Between the end of the Civil War and 1900, educated Americans reacted against Victorian values. In the first in a series of e-seminars, Casey Blake describes the new attitudes about the future, the separation of the sexes, masculinity, and the role of women. He concludes by reflecting on the beginnings of modernism at the end of the nineteenth century.

City Problems: Poverty and Slums
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Exploring the cholera epidemic in mid-nineteenth century New York City, this selection of primary sources provides a case-study of immigration, urbanization (e.g., slums such as the Five Points), and social and moral reform that can be applied to the study of any city in the industrialized world.

How the Other Half Lives
Resource Type: Primary Source
Newspaper reporters, such as Jacob Riis (1849–1914), played an instrumental role in exposing the destitution and misery of New York's immigrant and working-class neighborhoods.

City Problems: Poverty and Slums
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Exploring the cholera epidemic in mid-nineteenth century New York City, this selection of primary sources provides a case-study of immigration, urbanization (e.g., slums such as the Five Points), and social and moral reform that can be applied to the study of any city in the industrialized world.

How the Other Half Lives
Resource Type: Primary Source
Newspaper reporters, such as Jacob Riis (1849–1914), played an instrumental role in exposing the destitution and misery of New York's immigrant and working-class neighborhoods.

The Environmental Movements
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The larger issues of western expansion, industrialization, urbanization, and progressivism are explored in this DBQ on the environmental movements that arose at the end of the nineteenth century.

Tenement Slum
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jacob Riis, a reporter for the New York Sun newspaper, helped raise awareness about the conditions of the urban poor with his 1890 publication, How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York. This book would later influence Theodore Roosevelt.

Women and the Progressive Era
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The discussion of women at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century is often separated into different chapters and topics. This DBQ asks students to combine what they have learned about American society and about the changing roles and perceptions of women to evaluate the women's movement during the Progressive Era.

Twenty Years at Hull House
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jane Addams, a leading social worker during the Progressive Era, founded the Hull House settlement for immigrants in Chicago in 1889. She wrote about her experiences there in Twenty Years at Hull House, published in 1910.

Margaret Sanger on Working Women
Resource Type: Primary Source
Margaret Sanger became nationally famous for organizing a birth-control movement. In this 1915 issue of the International Socialist Review, Sanger discusses working women.

Scientific Advances and Thinking
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
By the late-nineteenth century, science and scientific thought influenced American intellectual life and culture. The documents attached to this DBQ allow students to assess how the achievements of science were both admired and feared.

Evolution and Religion
Resource Type: Primary Source
Reverend Henry Ward Beecher, one of the most famous Congregational preachers of his day, involved himself in controversy when he accepted Charles Darwin's theories of evolution.

A New Masculinity
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Historians are grappling with the changing definitions of American male identity that developed at the end of the nineteenth century. Casey Blake argues that American men were looking for ways to "compensate" for what they regarded as the feminine elements of modern life, particularly those brought about by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In response, a new definition of manhood, what Blake terms "aggressive male individualism," emerged. A teacher examines the interpretations of Gail Bederman and Susan Curtis.

Women and Social Reform
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation, students will be assigned the role of a prominent, late-nineteenth-century, middle-class American woman. The goal is to understand the changing perceptions and roles of women in Progressive-era America, as they took on leadership roles in a variety of associational groups such as the YWCA and the Red Cross.

Roosevelt on Physical Health
Resource Type: Primary Source
The future president, Theodore Roosevelt, discusses the importance of physical health and strength for American males.

The Progressive View
Resource Type: Primary Source
The sociologist Lester Frank Ward (1841-1913).

City Problems: Poverty and Slums
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Exploring the cholera epidemic in mid-nineteenth century New York City, this selection of primary sources provides a case-study of immigration, urbanization (e.g., slums such as the Five Points), and social and moral reform that can be applied to the study of any city in the industrialized world.

How the Other Half Lives
Resource Type: Primary Source
Newspaper reporters, such as Jacob Riis (1849–1914), played an instrumental role in exposing the destitution and misery of New York's immigrant and working-class neighborhoods.

Tenement Slum
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jacob Riis, a reporter for the New York Sun newspaper, helped raise awareness about the conditions of the urban poor with his 1890 publication, How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York. This book would later influence Theodore Roosevelt.

The Principles of Scientific Management
Resource Type: Primary Source
Frederick W. Taylor was a mechanical engineer who wrote extensively about scientific management, a method of managing groups of people based on scientific principles, as part of progressive notions of efficiency. His ideas influenced business management theory in America and around the world. The Principles of Scientific Management is a collection of his essays published in 1911.

Mrs. Marion Crocker on the Conservation Imperative
Resource Type: Primary Source
Mrs. Marion Crocker of the General Federation of Women's Clubs wholeheartedly endorsed the conservation movement, and the scientific basis on which it stood, in this 1912 speech to the Fourth Annual Conservation Congress.

How the Other Half Lives
Resource Type: Primary Source
Newspaper reporters, such as Jacob Riis (1849–1914), played an instrumental role in exposing the destitution and misery of New York's immigrant and working-class neighborhoods.

Tenement Slum
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jacob Riis, a reporter for the New York Sun newspaper, helped raise awareness about the conditions of the urban poor with his 1890 publication, How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York. This book would later influence Theodore Roosevelt.

How the Other Half Lives
Resource Type: Primary Source
Newspaper reporters, such as Jacob Riis (1849–1914), played an instrumental role in exposing the destitution and misery of New York's immigrant and working-class neighborhoods.

Growth of Woman's Christian Temperance Union
Resource Type: Primary Source
This 1959 chart shows the growth in membership of women involved in the movement to prohibit the consumption of alcohol.

The Warfare of Science with Theology
Resource Type: Primary Source
Andrew D. White was an American educator who wrote about the controversial reactions to Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species in his book, A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom, published in 1896.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Professionalizing Private Life
Resource Type: Primary Source

Disasters
Resource Type: Primary Source
Frances Perkins (1882-1965), a leader in the factory-safety reform spawned by the Triangle Shirtwaist fire.

Scientific Advances and Thinking
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
By the late-nineteenth century, science and scientific thought influenced American intellectual life and culture. The documents attached to this DBQ allow students to assess how the achievements of science were both admired and feared.

Women and Social Reform
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation, students will be assigned the role of a prominent, late-nineteenth-century, middle-class American woman. The goal is to understand the changing perceptions and roles of women in Progressive-era America, as they took on leadership roles in a variety of associational groups such as the YWCA and the Red Cross.

Growth of Woman's Christian Temperance Union
Resource Type: Primary Source
This 1959 chart shows the growth in membership of women involved in the movement to prohibit the consumption of alcohol.

Women and the Progressive Era
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The discussion of women at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century is often separated into different chapters and topics. This DBQ asks students to combine what they have learned about American society and about the changing roles and perceptions of women to evaluate the women's movement during the Progressive Era.

Striking Shirtwaist-Makers Selling Socialist Newspaper
Resource Type: Primary Source
Many Jewish women were very involved in labor and socialist movements, as seen in this 1910 photograph of striking shirtwaist-makers selling copies of The Call, the New York socialist daily.

Margaret Sanger on Working Women
Resource Type: Primary Source
Margaret Sanger became nationally famous for organizing a birth-control movement. In this 1915 issue of the International Socialist Review, Sanger discusses working women.

Women and the Progressive Era
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The discussion of women at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century is often separated into different chapters and topics. This DBQ asks students to combine what they have learned about American society and about the changing roles and perceptions of women to evaluate the women's movement during the Progressive Era.

Black Women and the National Council of Women
Resource Type: Primary Source
Adella Hunt Logan, a leading member of the Tuskegee Women's Club, argued on behalf of the National Association of Colored Women that black women should be included in the National Council of Women in the United States.

Social Darwinism: Its Influence and Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Social Darwinism is usually understood as an ideology that justified survival of the fittest, that argued against government intervention or social reform to improve society. The documents in this DBQ, however, point to the complexity of social-Darwinist thought, considering how a progressive version fueled the Progressive Era and how a conservative strand exerted tremendous influence in American political thought.

Exhibition of American Negroes at World's Fair
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Exhibition of American Negroes at the 1900 Paris World's Fair tried to show that blacks in America had become part of the American middle class.

The Doctrine of Separate Spheres
Resource Type: Primary Source
Women's world: the parlor.

The Younger Generation's Response
Resource Type: Primary Source
Victorian style: drawing room of W. C. Whitney residence, 1899.

The Search for New Identities
Resource Type: Primary Source
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935), c. 1905.

Jane Addams: Domesticating the Public World
Resource Type: Primary Source

Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Professionalizing Private Life
Resource Type: Primary Source
Charlotte Perkins Gilman at age 23.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Professionalizing Private Life
Resource Type: Primary Source
Publicity flyer, c. 1905, advertising some of Gilman's most popular lecture topics.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Professionalizing Private Life
Resource Type: Primary Source
Illustration from a Boston Sunday Herald article (January 1916) discussing Gilman's view of women's liberation as the measure of social progress.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Professionalizing Private Life
Resource Type: Primary Source

American Ambivalence
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jacket of the American edition of Harold Frederic's The Damnation of Theron Ware, or Illumination (New York: Stone and Kimball, 1896).

Women and the Progressive Era
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The discussion of women at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century is often separated into different chapters and topics. This DBQ asks students to combine what they have learned about American society and about the changing roles and perceptions of women to evaluate the women's movement during the Progressive Era.

The Yellow Wall Paper
Resource Type: Primary Source
Charlotte Perkins Gilman was a well-educated American woman who became depressed after her marriage in 1884. Diagnosed with neurasthenia and prescribed the "rest-cure,"she later wrote about her experience in The Yellow Wall Paper, published in 1899.

Black Women and the National Council of Women
Resource Type: Primary Source
Adella Hunt Logan, a leading member of the Tuskegee Women's Club, argued on behalf of the National Association of Colored Women that black women should be included in the National Council of Women in the United States.

Twenty Years at Hull House
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jane Addams, a leading social worker during the Progressive Era, founded the Hull House settlement for immigrants in Chicago in 1889. She wrote about her experiences there in Twenty Years at Hull House, published in 1910.

Striking Shirtwaist-Makers Selling Socialist Newspaper
Resource Type: Primary Source
Many Jewish women were very involved in labor and socialist movements, as seen in this 1910 photograph of striking shirtwaist-makers selling copies of The Call, the New York socialist daily.

Letter of a Woman Homesteader
Resource Type: Primary Source
Elinore Pruitt Stewart was one of many female homesteaders. In 1914, her letters were published in Letters of a Woman Homesteader. One letter, dated October 14, 1911, is reproduced below.

Margaret Sanger on Working Women
Resource Type: Primary Source
Margaret Sanger became nationally famous for organizing a birth-control movement. In this 1915 issue of the International Socialist Review, Sanger discusses working women.

The Rebel Girl
Resource Type: Primary Source
Joe Hill, lyricist and labor activist, wrote songs for the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), including this tribute to the women involved in the IWW.

The First Loan Fund Recipient
Resource Type: Primary Source
Frances Johnson was the first recipient of a college loan from a branch of the American Association of University Women. This enabled her to attend Cornell University. She is discussed in the minutes of the branch, published in 1925.

Marriage Rates of Alumnae
Resource Type: Primary Source
This table shows the marriage rates of women who graduated from a variety of American colleges during the period of 1820–1930.

Growth of Woman's Christian Temperance Union
Resource Type: Primary Source
This 1959 chart shows the growth in membership of women involved in the movement to prohibit the consumption of alcohol.

Mechanized Home Laundry
Resource Type: Primary Source
This drawing dramatically illustrates the increasing mechanization of domestic life during the second decade of the twentieth century.

Social Darwinism: Its Influence and Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Social Darwinism is usually understood as an ideology that justified survival of the fittest, that argued against government intervention or social reform to improve society. The documents in this DBQ, however, point to the complexity of social-Darwinist thought, considering how a progressive version fueled the Progressive Era and how a conservative strand exerted tremendous influence in American political thought.

Sanger on Mammals
Resource Type: Primary Source
Margaret Sanger became a nationally famous social reformer. Here she teaches children about mammals.

Women and Social Reform
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation, students will be assigned the role of a prominent, late-nineteenth-century, middle-class American woman. The goal is to understand the changing perceptions and roles of women in Progressive-era America, as they took on leadership roles in a variety of associational groups such as the YWCA and the Red Cross.

The Environmental Movements
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The larger issues of western expansion, industrialization, urbanization, and progressivism are explored in this DBQ on the environmental movements that arose at the end of the nineteenth century.

A New Masculinity
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Historians are grappling with the changing definitions of American male identity that developed at the end of the nineteenth century. Casey Blake argues that American men were looking for ways to "compensate" for what they regarded as the feminine elements of modern life, particularly those brought about by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In response, a new definition of manhood, what Blake terms "aggressive male individualism," emerged. A teacher examines the interpretations of Gail Bederman and Susan Curtis.

Roosevelt on Physical Health
Resource Type: Primary Source
The future president, Theodore Roosevelt, discusses the importance of physical health and strength for American males.

Reclamation Act / Newlands Act of 1902
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Reclamation Act / Newlands Act of 1902 allowed the government to undertake irrigation projects to establish farms for relief of urban congestion. The bill was named for its author, Francis Griffith Newlands, Democratic Representative from Nevada. The Reclamation Service, created in July 1902, was established a month later and eventually became the Bureau of Reclamation.

Why the Farmers Revolted
Resource Type: Primary Source
This article appeared in the magazine Forum in 1893, during a time when many American farmers were facing great distress.


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