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1.  War aims

2.  Wartime conferences: Teheran, Yalta, Potsdam


New Deal Order
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant texts:
The full text of ”The American Century” by Henry R. Luce
Ask Alan Brinkley: What role did the idea of an "American Century" play in the nation's response to World War II?

Relevant transcripts:
Optimism: In 1945, some diplomats still believed that Stalin was reasonable.
Pessimism: Other policymakers compared Stalin to Hitler.

The Politics of Anticommunism
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
The Red Scare: Alger Hiss

The Cold War: The Soviet Union
Resource Type: Primary Source
Charles Bohlen (1904–74), (with hand on chin, standing behind President Harry Truman) was a diplomat and Soviet expert in the State Department. Bohlen was outspoken in his warnings about the Soviet Union's intentions after World War II. He argued that the Soviet regime was paranoid and despotic, like Nazi Germany, and could not be trusted. His grim assessment of the Soviet Union was not widely accepted at first, but eventually it came to prevail. It led to the policy of containment, an underpinning of U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War.

The Cold War: The Soviet Union
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Bullitt (1891–1967), a U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union in the 1930s, was a leading representative of the pessimistic view of the Soviet regime after World War II. He thought the Soviet Union, led by Stalin, was morally equivalent to Nazi Germany and must be resisted. Not widely shared at first, this opinion eventually found acceptance throughout the U.S. government and helped shape the policy of containment during the Cold War.

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Historians Debate: Who Is Responsible for the Cold War?
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
This simulation involves a fictitious conference held in the year 2002, in which three groups of Cold War historians—orthodox, revisionist, and post-revisionist—debate the origins of the Cold War. Who is to blame, the United States, the Soviet Union, or both?

The Cold War: The Soviet Union
Resource Type: Primary Source
Josef Stalin (1879–1953), leader of the Soviet Union for more than thirty years, molded the characteristic features of the Soviet regime and to a large degree shaped East-West relations after World War II. An important ally of the United States during World War II, he was nevertheless a despotic ruler. After the war, the West, increasingly alarmed by his tyranny and brutality, which prompted comparisons to Hitler's rule in Nazi Germany, was alienated on the diplomatic front by conflicts with Stalin's over the extent of Soviet influence. Specifically, Stalin clashed with President Truman over the division of Germany into the democratic western sector and the communist eastern sector. Struggles also emerged in Turkey and Greece. The increasing hostility between Stalin and the West developed into the Cold War.

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