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APUSH-30

Eisenhower and Modern Republicanism


A.  Domestic frustrations; McCarthyism

B.  Civil rights movement

1.  The Warren Court and Brown v. Board of Education

2.  Montgomery bus boycott

3.  Greensboro sit-in

C.  John Foster Dulles' foreign policy

1.  Crisis in Southeast Asia

2.  Massive retaliation

3.  Nationalism in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Latin America

4.  Khrushchev and Berlin

D.  American people: homogenized society

1.  Prosperity: economic consolidation

2.  Consumer culture

3.  Consensus of values

E.  Space race


Resources:

The Vietnam War
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
A Bigger Story

New Deal Order
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Legacies
Legacies: Abundance
The New Framework
Allure of the New

Relevant transcripts:
The ideas of British economist John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946) became extremely popular in postwar America.
The consumer economy was made possible by growing abundance.
A period of exuberant innovation in art and of faith in scientific progress.

The Politics of Anticommunism
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Impact of the Cold War: The Iron Triangle
The Red Scare
The Red Scare: A Totalitarian Nightmare
The Red Scare: Alger Hiss
The Red Scare: Klaus Fuchs
The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
The Red Scare: Joseph McCarthy
Interpretations of the Red Scare
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Domestic Subversion
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Alienated Travelers
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Institutional Stakes
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Why So Widespread?
Final Analysis
Key Figures

Relevant transcripts:
Professor Brinkley introduces this e-seminar.
A focus on national security and intelligence.
The "domestic subversion" argument.
The "paranoid style" argument.
Why were people so afraid?
McCarthyism could have been challenged much earlier, but many elites were paralyzed by fear.

Relevant interactive tools:
Chronology
Chronology

The Stable Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Abundance
Abundance: The American Middle Class
Abundance: Defining the Middle Class
Television
Television: Messages and Sponsors
Television: Sitcoms
Television: Two-Edged Sword
The Suburbs
The Suburbs: Homogenity
The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
National Politics

Relevant transcripts:
The illusion of redistribution.
What happened to the middle class?
Outside the middle class.
A media president.

Relevant interactive tools:
Political Climate Chronology
Political Climate Chronology

The Subversive Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Disillusionment
Other Americans
Other Americans: Pressured to Conform
Environmental Critique: Pollution and Health
Feminism
Feminism: Two Different Spheres
Poverty
Poverty: Structural Poverty
Segregation
Segregation: Brown v. Board of Education
Segregation: Boycott
Timeline

Relevant transcripts:
Not a people united.
Increasing disenchantment.
The feminine mystique.
Whose fault was it?
Montgomery

Kennedy, Johnson, and the Great Society
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Presidents and Liberalism
Timeline

Relevant transcripts:
Eisenhower

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Timeline

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph McCarthy's cause was received favorably by a number of Democrats, including Robert F. Kennedy (center) and Senator Henry Jackson of Washington (right).

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Conclusion
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Eisenhower, with his wife Mamie, during inauguration ceremonies for his second term (January 1957).

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 3, The Stable Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In The Stable Fifties, the third e-seminar in the series America Since 1945, Professor Alan Brinkley examines the shift in American economics and culture that occurred after World War II. While many other combatant countries faced a slow rebuilding period after the war's end, the United States celebrated a vast and steady economic boom that began during the war and continued for the next twenty years. Professor Brinkley examines aspects of American middle-class culture during the Eisenhower years, including the rise of television and the expansion of the suburbs. He also offers a perspective on the Eisenhower presidency.

Presidents and Liberalism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of the first edition of The American Presidency by Clinton Rossiter (1956).

Presidents and Liberalism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of the first edition of Presidential Power: The Politics of Leadership by Richard Neustadt (1960.)

Presidents and Liberalism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Dwight Eisenhower, former U.S. president and former Columbia University president, visits Columbia's campus (1964).

Student Information Given to Federal Investigators
Resource Type: Primary Source
This article in the Columbia University student newspaper reports that the dean of students provided federal investigators with information about students who had attended the university.

DuBois on American Democracy
Resource Type: Primary Source
DuBois discusses American democracy and why he is frustrated with party politics in the United States.

Eisenhower at a Football Game
Resource Type: Primary Source
Eisenhower served as president of Columbia University; here he is seen waving a Columbia University pennant in one hand and an Army pennant in the other at a college football game.

Brown v. Board of Education: The Results of Segregation
Resource Type: Primary Source
This landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 declared the segregation of black and white children in American public schools to be unconstitutional.

From Protest to Politics
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bayard Rustin (1910–87), one of Martin Luther King's closest advisors, was a key organizer of the 1963 March on Washington.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Levitt On Communism and Home Ownership
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its mass-produced housing. William Levitt is quoted as saying the following.

Schlesinger on Freedom
Resource Type: Primary Source
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., a noted American historian, wrote this influential book to argue that a rejuvenated faith in democratic ideals and the continuation of New Deal liberalism would safeguard America from the twin threats of totalitarianism and fascism.

Joseph McCarthy's Speech
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, an unremarkable member of Congress from Wisconsin, burst onto the national political scene in 1950, after announcing to a West Virginia audience that he held in his hand a list of 205 American Communists who worked in the U.S. State Department.

Convergence
Resource Type: Primary Source
Renowned for his technique of spontaneous "splatter" or "action" painting, Jackson Pollock (1912–56) emerged as the leading American artist of the abstract expressionist movement.

I Am Waiting
Resource Type: Primary Source
One of the beat poets, Ferlinghetti captures an alternative perspective on life in postwar America in this poem.

Levittown, New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its hundreds of acres of mass-produced housing.

The Affluent Soceiety: Public vs. Private Sectors
Resource Type: Primary Source
John Kenneth Galbraith, a prominent Harvard economist, outlined in this article the necessary balance that should exist between the private and public sectors of the American economy.

Woolworth Counter Strike
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1960, students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, a historically black institution, defied segregation by sitting at the luncheon counter of the F.W. Woolworth store in Greensboro.

The Other America
Resource Type: Primary Source
With this book, writer and social activist Michael Harrington helped launch the New Left movement of the 1960s and its concerns about American poverty and social injustice.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

National Politics: Looking to Business
Resource Type: Primary Source
President-elect Eisenhower and Vice President-elect Nixon, with cabinet nominees (January 1953).

Impact of the Cold War: The Iron Triangle
Resource Type: Primary Source
Liberals were concerned that domestic social problems would damage America's influence abroad.

The Red Scare
Resource Type: Primary Source
U.S. Army poster from the mid-1950s.

The Red Scare: A Totalitarian Nightmare
Resource Type: Primary Source
Annie Lee Moss, a Pentagon worker whom Joseph McCarthy accused of being a communist, with her lawyer in 1954. McCarthy identified Moss as a code clerk who dealt with secret messages but in fact she worked in the cafeteria. Her case received national attention when Edward R. Murrow featured it in his CBS documentary series See It Now.

The Red Scare: A Totalitarian Nightmare
Resource Type: Primary Source
Seven members of the "Hollywood Ten" arrive at U.S. Federal Court in Washington, D.C., on June 22, 1950, to face charges of contempt. From left to right: Samuel Ornitz, Ring Lardner Jr., Albert Maltz, Alvah Bessie, Lester Cole, Herbert Biberman, and Edward Dmytryk.

The Red Scare: A Totalitarian Nightmare
Resource Type: Primary Source
Two other members of the legendary "Hollywood Ten" John Howard Lawson (left) and Dalton Trumbo enter van to be taken to DC jail after they were sentenced to one year in jail and fined $1,000 each for contempt of court.

The Red Scare: Klaus Fuchs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Photograph of British atomic scientist Klaus Fuchs that was used as an exhibit during the Rosenberg trial.

The Red Scare: Klaus Fuchs
Resource Type: Primary Source

The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Police photos of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.

The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Sketch used as evidence in the Rosenberg trial.

The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg leaving the U.S. Courthouse in New York City after being found guilty (1951).

The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Demonstrators gather at Pennsylvania Station in New York City on June 18, 1953, to travel to Washington, D.C., for a protest against the death sentence of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.

The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Ethel Rosenberg arriving at Sing Sing Prison on April 11, 1951, following her death sentence.

Interpretations of the Red Scare
Resource Type: Primary Source
U.S. Army poster from the mid-1950s.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Domestic Subversion
Resource Type: Primary Source
Poster for I Was a Communist for the FBI, a fictional film about an FBI agent who infiltrates the Communist Party (1951).

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Alienated Travelers
Resource Type: Primary Source
U.S. Army poster from the mid-1950s.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Alienated Travelers
Resource Type: Primary Source
McCarthy supporters at a rally in Washington, D.C., in December 1954.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Harry Truman holding up an early edition of the Chicago Tribune. The banner headline erroneously credited his opponent, Thomas Dewey, with victory in the 1948 presidential election.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 1.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 2.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 3.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 4.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 5.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 6.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 7. Truman's reply was probably never sent.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Institutional Stakes
Resource Type: Primary Source
The House Un-American Activities Committee.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Institutional Stakes
Resource Type: Primary Source
Edgar Hoover, longtime director of the FBI and a passionate anticommunist (c. 1953).

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Why So Widespread?
Resource Type: Primary Source
McCarthy depicted as a threat to the press. Cartoon by Daniel Robert Fitzpatrick (1953).

Final Analysis
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph McCarthy during the McCarthy-Army hearings (1954), which led to his political downfall.

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

The Red Scare: Alger Hiss
Resource Type: Primary Source
Richard M. Nixon (1913–94), 37th president of the United States, gained national prominence during the Red Scare of the early 1950s. Elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 after a campaign in which he accused his Democratic opponent of being soft on communism, Nixon went on to become a leader of Congressional investigations into communist activities in the United States. In particular, Nixon won national attention for his role in the investigation that the House Un-American Activities Committee conducted of Alger Hiss, an American who was alleged to have spied for the Soviets.

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 2, The Politics of Anticommunism
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In this e-seminar, the second in a series of ten, Professor Brinkley examines the Cold War, a key event during the "the postwar era," a period of more than half a century, during which the United States has probably changed more rapidly and profoundly than during any other period of its history. He analyzes the Cold War as a force in American domestic life, one that had an important impact on the relationships among and the distribution of power within many of the central institutions of American life.

Television: Two-Edged Sword
Resource Type: Primary Source
Edward R. Murrow and Senator Joseph McCarthy on the news show See It Now, during the McCarthy-Army hearings (July 8, 1954).

Student Information Given to Federal Investigators
Resource Type: Primary Source
This article in the Columbia University student newspaper reports that the dean of students provided federal investigators with information about students who had attended the university.

DuBois on American Democracy
Resource Type: Primary Source
DuBois discusses American democracy and why he is frustrated with party politics in the United States.

New Deal Liberalism and Postwar Economic Growth
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The primary sources in this DBQ help students explore the legacy of New Deal liberalism as American society is transformed during the 1940s and 50s. Economic, political, and social issues interact to simultaneously and paradoxically enhance and undermine government intervention in American society.

Eisenhower and the Politics of the 1950s
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This selection of primary sources gives students an opportunity to examine different layers of dissent during the Eisenhower presidency. Although President Eisenhower enjoyed great public support, his administration was challenged by problems at home and abroad.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Levitt On Communism and Home Ownership
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its mass-produced housing. William Levitt is quoted as saying the following.

Schlesinger on Freedom
Resource Type: Primary Source
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., a noted American historian, wrote this influential book to argue that a rejuvenated faith in democratic ideals and the continuation of New Deal liberalism would safeguard America from the twin threats of totalitarianism and fascism.

Joseph McCarthy's Speech
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, an unremarkable member of Congress from Wisconsin, burst onto the national political scene in 1950, after announcing to a West Virginia audience that he held in his hand a list of 205 American Communists who worked in the U.S. State Department.

Convergence
Resource Type: Primary Source
Renowned for his technique of spontaneous "splatter" or "action" painting, Jackson Pollock (1912–56) emerged as the leading American artist of the abstract expressionist movement.

Levittown, New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its hundreds of acres of mass-produced housing.

The Avant-Garde Artists of the 1950s
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this creative simulation, students role-play avant-garde artists of the 1950s to discuss important issues of the times (politics, the affluent society, race relations, women, etc.) from an artistic and intellectual perspective.

Segregation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Sympathy demonstration held in New York City in support of desegregation in the South (1960).

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 4, The Subversive Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In The Subversive Fifties, the fourth e-seminar in the series America Since 1945, the eminent historian Alan Brinkley discusses a variety of early counterculture movements—literary, social, and environmental—whose origins date back to the 1950s and early 1960s. He also covers the roots of the civil-rights movement, discussing the Montgomery bus boycott, in which Martin Luther King Jr. first gained national attention.

Review of Invisible Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
New York intellectual Irving Howe affirms Ralph Ellison's book Invisible Man as a "Negro novel."

DuBois on American Democracy
Resource Type: Primary Source
DuBois discusses American democracy and why he is frustrated with party politics in the United States.

The Affluent Society
Resource Type: Primary Source
Galbraith's classic study of 1950s America discusses the irony of the existence of significant poverty in affluent America.

Coming of Age in Mississippi
Resource Type: Primary Source
Moody reveals her experience of wandering into the white section of the local theater; she realizes, after the incident, that "whiteness" provided her friends with a different life.

Eisenhower and the Politics of the 1950s
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This selection of primary sources gives students an opportunity to examine different layers of dissent during the Eisenhower presidency. Although President Eisenhower enjoyed great public support, his administration was challenged by problems at home and abroad.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The civil-rights movement shifted from nonviolent civil disobedience to "black power." The rich selection of primary sources will help students explore the philosophies of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, the differences between the African American experience in the North and in the South, the role of government and political institutions, as well as global movements against imperialism.

Brown v. Board of Education: The Results of Segregation
Resource Type: Primary Source
This landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 declared the segregation of black and white children in American public schools to be unconstitutional.

From Protest to Politics
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bayard Rustin (1910–87), one of Martin Luther King's closest advisors, was a key organizer of the 1963 March on Washington.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Woolworth Counter Strike
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1960, students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, a historically black institution, defied segregation by sitting at the luncheon counter of the F.W. Woolworth store in Greensboro.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

The Avant-Garde Artists of the 1950s
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this creative simulation, students role-play avant-garde artists of the 1950s to discuss important issues of the times (politics, the affluent society, race relations, women, etc.) from an artistic and intellectual perspective.

Civil-Rights Debate: Where Do We Go from Here?
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation students are asked to represent a variety of figures from American society in the 1960s. The goal is to understand the complex nature of race relations and power politics in the United States—especially how individuals and events at home and abroad influenced the civil-rights movement.

Segregation: Brown v. Board of Education
Resource Type: Primary Source
Linda Brown in class at the segregated school she attended before the Supreme Court decided her case and outlawed school segregation.

Segregation: Brown v. Board of Education
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Supreme Court's decree calling for desegregation "with all deliberate speed," issued a year after the court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 5, Kennedy, Johnson, and the Great Society
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In Kennedy, Johnson, and the Great Society, the fifth e-seminar in the series America Since 1945, the eminent historian Alan Brinkley focuses on the administrations of Presidents John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. Professor Brinkley compares and contrasts these two great figures of the 1960s and analyzes the social programs, such as the Great Society and the war on poverty, that became landmarks of the period.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The civil-rights movement shifted from nonviolent civil disobedience to "black power." The rich selection of primary sources will help students explore the philosophies of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, the differences between the African American experience in the North and in the South, the role of government and political institutions, as well as global movements against imperialism.

Brown v. Board of Education: The Results of Segregation
Resource Type: Primary Source
This landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 declared the segregation of black and white children in American public schools to be unconstitutional.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Segregation: Boycott
Resource Type: Primary Source
African American passengers sit at the front of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, following a federal-court order desegregating buses.

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 5, Kennedy, Johnson, and the Great Society
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In Kennedy, Johnson, and the Great Society, the fifth e-seminar in the series America Since 1945, the eminent historian Alan Brinkley focuses on the administrations of Presidents John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. Professor Brinkley compares and contrasts these two great figures of the 1960s and analyzes the social programs, such as the Great Society and the war on poverty, that became landmarks of the period.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The civil-rights movement shifted from nonviolent civil disobedience to "black power." The rich selection of primary sources will help students explore the philosophies of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, the differences between the African American experience in the North and in the South, the role of government and political institutions, as well as global movements against imperialism.

Brown v. Board of Education: The Results of Segregation
Resource Type: Primary Source
This landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 declared the segregation of black and white children in American public schools to be unconstitutional.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The civil-rights movement shifted from nonviolent civil disobedience to "black power." The rich selection of primary sources will help students explore the philosophies of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, the differences between the African American experience in the North and in the South, the role of government and political institutions, as well as global movements against imperialism.

Brown v. Board of Education: The Results of Segregation
Resource Type: Primary Source
This landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 declared the segregation of black and white children in American public schools to be unconstitutional.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Woolworth Counter Strike
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1960, students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, a historically black institution, defied segregation by sitting at the luncheon counter of the F.W. Woolworth store in Greensboro.

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 3, The Stable Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In The Stable Fifties, the third e-seminar in the series America Since 1945, Professor Alan Brinkley examines the shift in American economics and culture that occurred after World War II. While many other combatant countries faced a slow rebuilding period after the war's end, the United States celebrated a vast and steady economic boom that began during the war and continued for the next twenty years. Professor Brinkley examines aspects of American middle-class culture during the Eisenhower years, including the rise of television and the expansion of the suburbs. He also offers a perspective on the Eisenhower presidency.

Eisenhower and the Politics of the 1950s
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This selection of primary sources gives students an opportunity to examine different layers of dissent during the Eisenhower presidency. Although President Eisenhower enjoyed great public support, his administration was challenged by problems at home and abroad.

Abundance: The American Middle Class
Resource Type: Primary Source
Scene of typical middle-American life.

Television: Sitcoms
Resource Type: Primary Source
Audrey Meadows and Jackie Gleason in a promotional portrait for The Honeymooners.

Television: Two-Edged Sword
Resource Type: Primary Source
Lucille Ball and her husband, Desi Arnaz, costars of I Love Lucy.

The Suburbs: Homogenity
Resource Type: Primary Source
Aerial view of Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Homogenity
Resource Type: Primary Source
Ad for Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Families move into Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Welcome wagon offers gifts from local merchants to new arrivals in Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cape Cod–style houses in Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Dance rehearsal in Levittown, N.Y. (1950).

Other Americans
Resource Type: Primary Source
A corporate board of directors (1961).

Other Americans: Pressured to Conform
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of The Organization Man by William H. Whyte, Jr. (1956).

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 4, The Subversive Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In The Subversive Fifties, the fourth e-seminar in the series America Since 1945, the eminent historian Alan Brinkley discusses a variety of early counterculture movements—literary, social, and environmental—whose origins date back to the 1950s and early 1960s. He also covers the roots of the civil-rights movement, discussing the Montgomery bus boycott, in which Martin Luther King Jr. first gained national attention.

Review of Invisible Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
New York intellectual Irving Howe affirms Ralph Ellison's book Invisible Man as a "Negro novel."

The Organization Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Whyte discusses the institutionalized and bureaucratized aspects of life in America.

The Affluent Society
Resource Type: Primary Source
Galbraith's classic study of 1950s America discusses the irony of the existence of significant poverty in affluent America.

Eisenhower at a Football Game
Resource Type: Primary Source
Eisenhower served as president of Columbia University; here he is seen waving a Columbia University pennant in one hand and an Army pennant in the other at a college football game.

Modern Republicanism and the New Right
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The development of a Republican majority is the focus of this DBQ, which explores the larger issues of modern republicanism in postwar America and the emergence of the new right. Electoral maps provide in-depth analyses of presidential elections since the 1960s.

Eisenhower and the Politics of the 1950s
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This selection of primary sources gives students an opportunity to examine different layers of dissent during the Eisenhower presidency. Although President Eisenhower enjoyed great public support, his administration was challenged by problems at home and abroad.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Levitt On Communism and Home Ownership
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its mass-produced housing. William Levitt is quoted as saying the following.

Schlesinger on Freedom
Resource Type: Primary Source
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., a noted American historian, wrote this influential book to argue that a rejuvenated faith in democratic ideals and the continuation of New Deal liberalism would safeguard America from the twin threats of totalitarianism and fascism.

Joseph McCarthy's Speech
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, an unremarkable member of Congress from Wisconsin, burst onto the national political scene in 1950, after announcing to a West Virginia audience that he held in his hand a list of 205 American Communists who worked in the U.S. State Department.

Convergence
Resource Type: Primary Source
Renowned for his technique of spontaneous "splatter" or "action" painting, Jackson Pollock (1912–56) emerged as the leading American artist of the abstract expressionist movement.

I Am Waiting
Resource Type: Primary Source
One of the beat poets, Ferlinghetti captures an alternative perspective on life in postwar America in this poem.

Levittown, New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its hundreds of acres of mass-produced housing.

The Affluent Soceiety: Public vs. Private Sectors
Resource Type: Primary Source
John Kenneth Galbraith, a prominent Harvard economist, outlined in this article the necessary balance that should exist between the private and public sectors of the American economy.

The Other America
Resource Type: Primary Source
With this book, writer and social activist Michael Harrington helped launch the New Left movement of the 1960s and its concerns about American poverty and social injustice.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

The Avant-Garde Artists of the 1950s
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this creative simulation, students role-play avant-garde artists of the 1950s to discuss important issues of the times (politics, the affluent society, race relations, women, etc.) from an artistic and intellectual perspective.

Sixties Radicalism and Conservatism
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Dissent and social protest characterize the 1960s. Enduring images of the decade recall its civil-rights marches, antiwar protests, and rallies of members of various social grouips—women, farmworkers, American Indians—calling for greater justice. The documents within the DBQ represent a variety of voices, illustrating the tensions between countercultural movements of the 1960s and conservative reactions against them. This DBQ contextualizes the debates of the 1960s within a longer-term analysis of the divisions between left and right in the United States since the beginning of the Cold War.

The New Framework
Resource Type: Primary Source
Still from In Our Hands, Part 2: What We Have (1950).

Abundance
Resource Type: Primary Source
Poster from the U.S. Housing Authority (1940s).

Abundance
Resource Type: Primary Source
New York City housing project (c. 1950).

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 3, The Stable Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In The Stable Fifties, the third e-seminar in the series America Since 1945, Professor Alan Brinkley examines the shift in American economics and culture that occurred after World War II. While many other combatant countries faced a slow rebuilding period after the war's end, the United States celebrated a vast and steady economic boom that began during the war and continued for the next twenty years. Professor Brinkley examines aspects of American middle-class culture during the Eisenhower years, including the rise of television and the expansion of the suburbs. He also offers a perspective on the Eisenhower presidency.

Environmental Critique: DDT
Resource Type: Primary Source
Farmer sprays DDT pesticide on trees (1948).

Environmental Critique: DDT
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (1962), which exposed data on the harmful effects of DDT and other chemical pesticides.

The Affluent Society
Resource Type: Primary Source
Galbraith's classic study of 1950s America discusses the irony of the existence of significant poverty in affluent America.

Homogenized Society and Conformity
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This carefully crafted selection of primary sources will allow students to weigh the multiplicity of factors that influenced American culture in the 1950s, such as the Cold War, government policies, legislation, corporations, and television. Students can focus on the extent to which consensus and conformity dominated relations among or within various social groups.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Levitt On Communism and Home Ownership
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its mass-produced housing. William Levitt is quoted as saying the following.

Convergence
Resource Type: Primary Source
Renowned for his technique of spontaneous "splatter" or "action" painting, Jackson Pollock (1912–56) emerged as the leading American artist of the abstract expressionist movement.

I Am Waiting
Resource Type: Primary Source
One of the beat poets, Ferlinghetti captures an alternative perspective on life in postwar America in this poem.

Levittown, New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its hundreds of acres of mass-produced housing.

The Affluent Soceiety: Public vs. Private Sectors
Resource Type: Primary Source
John Kenneth Galbraith, a prominent Harvard economist, outlined in this article the necessary balance that should exist between the private and public sectors of the American economy.

The Other America
Resource Type: Primary Source
With this book, writer and social activist Michael Harrington helped launch the New Left movement of the 1960s and its concerns about American poverty and social injustice.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

Economic Prosperity in the 1950s in the United States
Resource Type: Teaching Activity
The purpose of this classroom activity on economic prosperity in the 1950s is to analyze the forces that have paradoxically led to a cultural homogeneity, on the one hand, and to a contesting of cultural conformity, on the other. The role of television is closely examined in terms of how it helped to shape public perceptions—sometimes reinforcing a sense of unity, at other times sowing the seeds of discord.

Middle-Class America and Its Discontents
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
This simulation asks students to place themselves in a Greenwich Village coffeehouse on the eve of the 1960s. Replicating a broad spectrum of American society, from conservatives to counterculture critics, students will understand how the fifties represented an era of consensus that paradoxically carried the seeds of protest that would fuel the rebellion of the sixties.

National Politics: Looking to Business
Resource Type: Primary Source
President-elect Eisenhower, Viscount Bernard L. Montgomery, and Don G. Mitchell, president of Sylvania corporation (1958).

The Suburbs: Homogenity
Resource Type: Primary Source
Ad for Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Ad describes the rush by veterans to buy homes in Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Customers wait in line to buy houses in Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Square dancers celebrate Levittown's 10th anniversary.

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 3, The Stable Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In The Stable Fifties, the third e-seminar in the series America Since 1945, Professor Alan Brinkley examines the shift in American economics and culture that occurred after World War II. While many other combatant countries faced a slow rebuilding period after the war's end, the United States celebrated a vast and steady economic boom that began during the war and continued for the next twenty years. Professor Brinkley examines aspects of American middle-class culture during the Eisenhower years, including the rise of television and the expansion of the suburbs. He also offers a perspective on the Eisenhower presidency.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Levitt On Communism and Home Ownership
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its mass-produced housing. William Levitt is quoted as saying the following.

I Am Waiting
Resource Type: Primary Source
One of the beat poets, Ferlinghetti captures an alternative perspective on life in postwar America in this poem.

Levittown, New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its hundreds of acres of mass-produced housing.

The Affluent Soceiety: Public vs. Private Sectors
Resource Type: Primary Source
John Kenneth Galbraith, a prominent Harvard economist, outlined in this article the necessary balance that should exist between the private and public sectors of the American economy.

The Other America
Resource Type: Primary Source
With this book, writer and social activist Michael Harrington helped launch the New Left movement of the 1960s and its concerns about American poverty and social injustice.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

Economic Prosperity in the 1950s in the United States
Resource Type: Teaching Activity
The purpose of this classroom activity on economic prosperity in the 1950s is to analyze the forces that have paradoxically led to a cultural homogeneity, on the one hand, and to a contesting of cultural conformity, on the other. The role of television is closely examined in terms of how it helped to shape public perceptions—sometimes reinforcing a sense of unity, at other times sowing the seeds of discord.

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 3, The Stable Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In The Stable Fifties, the third e-seminar in the series America Since 1945, Professor Alan Brinkley examines the shift in American economics and culture that occurred after World War II. While many other combatant countries faced a slow rebuilding period after the war's end, the United States celebrated a vast and steady economic boom that began during the war and continued for the next twenty years. Professor Brinkley examines aspects of American middle-class culture during the Eisenhower years, including the rise of television and the expansion of the suburbs. He also offers a perspective on the Eisenhower presidency.

Homogenized Society and Conformity
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This carefully crafted selection of primary sources will allow students to weigh the multiplicity of factors that influenced American culture in the 1950s, such as the Cold War, government policies, legislation, corporations, and television. Students can focus on the extent to which consensus and conformity dominated relations among or within various social groups.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Levitt On Communism and Home Ownership
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its mass-produced housing. William Levitt is quoted as saying the following.

Schlesinger on Freedom
Resource Type: Primary Source
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., a noted American historian, wrote this influential book to argue that a rejuvenated faith in democratic ideals and the continuation of New Deal liberalism would safeguard America from the twin threats of totalitarianism and fascism.

Joseph McCarthy's Speech
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, an unremarkable member of Congress from Wisconsin, burst onto the national political scene in 1950, after announcing to a West Virginia audience that he held in his hand a list of 205 American Communists who worked in the U.S. State Department.

Convergence
Resource Type: Primary Source
Renowned for his technique of spontaneous "splatter" or "action" painting, Jackson Pollock (1912–56) emerged as the leading American artist of the abstract expressionist movement.

I Am Waiting
Resource Type: Primary Source
One of the beat poets, Ferlinghetti captures an alternative perspective on life in postwar America in this poem.

Levittown, New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its hundreds of acres of mass-produced housing.

The Affluent Soceiety: Public vs. Private Sectors
Resource Type: Primary Source
John Kenneth Galbraith, a prominent Harvard economist, outlined in this article the necessary balance that should exist between the private and public sectors of the American economy.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

Middle-Class America and Its Discontents
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
This simulation asks students to place themselves in a Greenwich Village coffeehouse on the eve of the 1960s. Replicating a broad spectrum of American society, from conservatives to counterculture critics, students will understand how the fifties represented an era of consensus that paradoxically carried the seeds of protest that would fuel the rebellion of the sixties.


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