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APUSH-31-B

Civil rights and civil liberties


1.  African Americans: political, cultural, and economic roles

2.  The leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr.

3.  Resurgence of feminism

4.  The New Left and the Counterculture

5.  Emergence of the Republican Party in the South

6.  The Supreme Court and the Miranda decision


Resources:

Cultural Revolutions
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
A Redefinition of the Self
A Redefinition of the Self: Free Expression
A Redefinition of the Self: Puritanism and Hedonism Combined
Revolution
Revolution: Beyond the Marches
The New Left
The New Left: Berkeley
The New Left: The Goal of Participation
A Vastly Different Culture
Key Figures

The Politics of Anticommunism
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Institutional Stakes

The Stable Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Television: Two-Edged Sword

The Subversive Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Other Americans: The Beats
Environmental Critique
Environmental Critique: DDT
Environmental Critique: Pollution and Health
Feminism
Feminism: Two Different Spheres
Feminism: A More Complex Problem
Timeline

Relevant transcripts:
Kerouac
Antecedents of the counterculture.
Whose fault was it?
Racial disparities.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
Greensboro
Southern Whites
Drawing National Attention
Drawing National Attention: Silent No Longer
March on Washington
Selma
Selma: Malcolm X Appears
A National Problem
A National Problem: Still Unequal
Militancy
Militancy: Black Power
Militancy: The Black Panthers
What Happened in White America?
Timeline

Relevant texts:
Text of President Kennedy's televised speech on Civil Rights (June 11, 1963).
Special Message to the Congress: The American Promise
"Letter from Birmingham Jail"

Relevant transcripts:
Rising expectations.

Relevant interactive tools:
Broadside distributed at Columbia University by the Black Panther Party (1970).
Broadside distributed at Columbia University by the Black Panther Party (1970).

The War on Poverty
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Institutional Stakes
Resource Type: Primary Source
Edgar Hoover, longtime director of the FBI and a passionate anticommunist (c. 1953).

Introduction
Resource Type: Primary Source
The March on Washington (August 28, 1963). Participants included, front row, left to right: Whitney M. Young Jr., executive director of the National Urban League; Roy Wilkins, executive secretary of the NAACP; and A. Philip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.

Greensboro
Resource Type: Primary Source
Sit-in at a Woolworth store's lunch counter, Greensboro, North Carolina (February 1960).

Southern Whites
Resource Type: Primary Source
Police officers used attack dogs against civil-rights demonstrators in Birmingham (May 3, 1963).

Southern Whites
Resource Type: Primary Source
"Bull" Connor, Birmingham sheriff (1963).

Southern Whites
Resource Type: Primary Source
Interior of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church after it was bombed, Birmingham (September 1963).

Selma
Resource Type: Primary Source
Police swing clubs to break up voting-rights demonstration in Selma, Alabama (March 7, 1965).

Special Message to the Congress: The American Promise
Resource Type: Primary Source
Text of President Johnson's speech introducing the voting-rights bill to a Joint Session of Congress (March 15, 1965).

Militancy: Black Power
Resource Type: Primary Source
Stokely Carmichael addresses a crowd (1966).

Militancy: Black Power
Resource Type: Primary Source
Malcolm X visits Barnard College (1965).

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 6, The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In The Civil-Rights Movement, the sixth of ten e-seminars in the series America Since 1945, historian Alan Brinkley discusses one of the most important social movements in twentieth-century American history. He analyzes the events that propelled and shaped the civil-rights movement, the growing national awareness of racial inequalities in America, and the social policies that were created in response to those inequalities.

Review of Invisible Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
New York intellectual Irving Howe affirms Ralph Ellison's book Invisible Man as a "Negro novel."

President Johnson's Commencement Address
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech in 1965 to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to delineate the tenets of his Great Society program.

Modern Republicanism and the New Right
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The development of a Republican majority is the focus of this DBQ, which explores the larger issues of modern republicanism in postwar America and the emergence of the new right. Electoral maps provide in-depth analyses of presidential elections since the 1960s.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The civil-rights movement shifted from nonviolent civil disobedience to "black power." The rich selection of primary sources will help students explore the philosophies of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, the differences between the African American experience in the North and in the South, the role of government and political institutions, as well as global movements against imperialism.

Brown v. Board of Education: The Results of Segregation
Resource Type: Primary Source
This landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 declared the segregation of black and white children in American public schools to be unconstitutional.

From Protest to Politics
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bayard Rustin (1910–87), one of Martin Luther King's closest advisors, was a key organizer of the 1963 March on Washington.

To Fulfill These Rights
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to outline the Great Society program.

Power and Racism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Stokely Carmichael (1941–88), born in Trinidad, invented the rallying cry of "Black Power" in Mississippi, in 1966, as a leader of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). He left America in 1969 for Africa, where he helped found the All-African People's Revolutionary Party.

Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bobby Seale (1936– ) and Huey Newton (1942–89), cofounders of the Marxist Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in 1966, advocated self-determination and self-rule for black Americans in contrast to the nonviolent, integrationist strategy of Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–68) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Black Panther Party Platform
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bobby Seale (1936– ) and Huey Newton (1942–89), cofounders of the Marxist Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in 1966, advocated self-determination and self-rule for black Americans in contrast to the nonviolent, integrationist strategy of Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–68) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Chocolate City
Resource Type: Primary Source
The militant black-power phase of the civil-rights movement had its musical corollary in the rise of funk, an urban, gritty genre most often associated in the late 1960s with James Brown (1928– ) and Sly and the Family Stone. The band Parliament burst onto the national scene in the mid-1970s.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Woolworth Counter Strike
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1960, students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, a historically black institution, defied segregation by sitting at the luncheon counter of the F.W. Woolworth store in Greensboro.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

Civil-Rights Debate: Where Do We Go from Here?
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation students are asked to represent a variety of figures from American society in the 1960s. The goal is to understand the complex nature of race relations and power politics in the United States—especially how individuals and events at home and abroad influenced the civil-rights movement.

Democracy: Limitations and Possibilities
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
During the 1960s, a series of widely disparate protest movements emerged in the United States. While the antiwar movement directed against U.S. intervention in the Vietnam War appeared to be the most salient, many others as well expressed discontent with American government and society. In this question, students are asked to look at a variety of groups—including women, African Americans, and ethnic minorities—many of whose members felt marginalized or underrepresented, became politically active, and helped to establish social movements dedicated to the advancement of their communities. Students can use these documents to determine the degree to which different groups sought to redefine American democracy and make it more inclusive.

Sixties Radicalism and Conservatism
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Dissent and social protest characterize the 1960s. Enduring images of the decade recall its civil-rights marches, antiwar protests, and rallies of members of various social grouips—women, farmworkers, American Indians—calling for greater justice. The documents within the DBQ represent a variety of voices, illustrating the tensions between countercultural movements of the 1960s and conservative reactions against them. This DBQ contextualizes the debates of the 1960s within a longer-term analysis of the divisions between left and right in the United States since the beginning of the Cold War.

Selma: Malcolm X Appears
Resource Type: Primary Source
Malcolm X addresses civil-rights protesters in Selma (February 4, 1965).

A National Problem
Resource Type: Primary Source
Mounted police disperse demonstrators during a conflict over racial integration of schools, Boston (1974).

A National Problem
Resource Type: Primary Source
Burnt-out block in the South Bronx, New York City (1977).

Militancy
Resource Type: Primary Source
Broadside distributed at Columbia University by the Black Panther Party (1970).

Militancy: Black Power
Resource Type: Primary Source
Malcolm X visits Barnard College (1965).

Militancy: The Black Panthers
Resource Type: Primary Source
Black Panther Party members at the California state capitol argue with a state policeman after he disarms them, Sacramento (May 2, 1967).

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 6, The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In The Civil-Rights Movement, the sixth of ten e-seminars in the series America Since 1945, historian Alan Brinkley discusses one of the most important social movements in twentieth-century American history. He analyzes the events that propelled and shaped the civil-rights movement, the growing national awareness of racial inequalities in America, and the social policies that were created in response to those inequalities.

Review of Invisible Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
New York intellectual Irving Howe affirms Ralph Ellison's book Invisible Man as a "Negro novel."

President Johnson's Commencement Address
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech in 1965 to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to delineate the tenets of his Great Society program.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The civil-rights movement shifted from nonviolent civil disobedience to "black power." The rich selection of primary sources will help students explore the philosophies of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, the differences between the African American experience in the North and in the South, the role of government and political institutions, as well as global movements against imperialism.

Brown v. Board of Education: The Results of Segregation
Resource Type: Primary Source
This landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 declared the segregation of black and white children in American public schools to be unconstitutional.

From Protest to Politics
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bayard Rustin (1910–87), one of Martin Luther King's closest advisors, was a key organizer of the 1963 March on Washington.

To Fulfill These Rights
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to outline the Great Society program.

Power and Racism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Stokely Carmichael (1941–88), born in Trinidad, invented the rallying cry of "Black Power" in Mississippi, in 1966, as a leader of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). He left America in 1969 for Africa, where he helped found the All-African People's Revolutionary Party.

Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bobby Seale (1936– ) and Huey Newton (1942–89), cofounders of the Marxist Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in 1966, advocated self-determination and self-rule for black Americans in contrast to the nonviolent, integrationist strategy of Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–68) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Black Panther Party Platform
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bobby Seale (1936– ) and Huey Newton (1942–89), cofounders of the Marxist Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in 1966, advocated self-determination and self-rule for black Americans in contrast to the nonviolent, integrationist strategy of Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–68) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Chocolate City
Resource Type: Primary Source
The militant black-power phase of the civil-rights movement had its musical corollary in the rise of funk, an urban, gritty genre most often associated in the late 1960s with James Brown (1928– ) and Sly and the Family Stone. The band Parliament burst onto the national scene in the mid-1970s.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Woolworth Counter Strike
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1960, students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, a historically black institution, defied segregation by sitting at the luncheon counter of the F.W. Woolworth store in Greensboro.

Democracy: Limitations and Possibilities
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
During the 1960s, a series of widely disparate protest movements emerged in the United States. While the antiwar movement directed against U.S. intervention in the Vietnam War appeared to be the most salient, many others as well expressed discontent with American government and society. In this question, students are asked to look at a variety of groups—including women, African Americans, and ethnic minorities—many of whose members felt marginalized or underrepresented, became politically active, and helped to establish social movements dedicated to the advancement of their communities. Students can use these documents to determine the degree to which different groups sought to redefine American democracy and make it more inclusive.

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 6, The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In The Civil-Rights Movement, the sixth of ten e-seminars in the series America Since 1945, historian Alan Brinkley discusses one of the most important social movements in twentieth-century American history. He analyzes the events that propelled and shaped the civil-rights movement, the growing national awareness of racial inequalities in America, and the social policies that were created in response to those inequalities.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The civil-rights movement shifted from nonviolent civil disobedience to "black power." The rich selection of primary sources will help students explore the philosophies of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, the differences between the African American experience in the North and in the South, the role of government and political institutions, as well as global movements against imperialism.

From Protest to Politics
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bayard Rustin (1910–87), one of Martin Luther King's closest advisors, was a key organizer of the 1963 March on Washington.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

Democracy: Limitations and Possibilities
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
During the 1960s, a series of widely disparate protest movements emerged in the United States. While the antiwar movement directed against U.S. intervention in the Vietnam War appeared to be the most salient, many others as well expressed discontent with American government and society. In this question, students are asked to look at a variety of groups—including women, African Americans, and ethnic minorities—many of whose members felt marginalized or underrepresented, became politically active, and helped to establish social movements dedicated to the advancement of their communities. Students can use these documents to determine the degree to which different groups sought to redefine American democracy and make it more inclusive.

Sixties Radicalism and Conservatism
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Dissent and social protest characterize the 1960s. Enduring images of the decade recall its civil-rights marches, antiwar protests, and rallies of members of various social grouips—women, farmworkers, American Indians—calling for greater justice. The documents within the DBQ represent a variety of voices, illustrating the tensions between countercultural movements of the 1960s and conservative reactions against them. This DBQ contextualizes the debates of the 1960s within a longer-term analysis of the divisions between left and right in the United States since the beginning of the Cold War.

Feminism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of a 1964 paperback edition of The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan. This book was first published in 1963.

Feminism: Two Different Spheres
Resource Type: Primary Source
Alice Paul, feminist activist (1920).

Feminism: Two Different Spheres
Resource Type: Primary Source
Eleanor Roosevelt shakes hands with a resident of a dormitory for black women war workers (1943).

Feminism: Two Different Spheres
Resource Type: Primary Source
Women workers were a key force in the effort to win World War II.

Feminism: Two Different Spheres
Resource Type: Primary Source
Woman works in her victory garden in Washington, D.C., during World War II.

Feminism: Two Different Spheres
Resource Type: Primary Source
Women war worker with child, World War II.

Feminism: Two Different Spheres
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of a 1961 edition of Baby and Child Care, by Dr. Benjamin Spock. This book was first published as The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care in 1946.

Feminism: Two Different Spheres
Resource Type: Primary Source
Rebel Without A Cause, promotional still.

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 4, The Subversive Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In The Subversive Fifties, the fourth e-seminar in the series America Since 1945, the eminent historian Alan Brinkley discusses a variety of early counterculture movements—literary, social, and environmental—whose origins date back to the 1950s and early 1960s. He also covers the roots of the civil-rights movement, discussing the Montgomery bus boycott, in which Martin Luther King Jr. first gained national attention.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

Debating the Legacy of the 1960s
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation of a television talk show, students are required to assume the roles of present-day talk-show moderators as well as of individuals active during the 1960s. The students are to debate, in character, the legacy of the 1960s—the impact it has had on American politics and society up to the present day.

The Legacy of the Counterculture
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint

The New Left
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint

Primary Source Analysis: The Sixties
Resource Type: Teaching Activity

Primary Source Analysis: Protest Music
Resource Type: Teaching Activity

Primary Source Analysis: Nixon and Vietnam
Resource Type: Teaching Activity

Democracy: Limitations and Possibilities
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
During the 1960s, a series of widely disparate protest movements emerged in the United States. While the antiwar movement directed against U.S. intervention in the Vietnam War appeared to be the most salient, many others as well expressed discontent with American government and society. In this question, students are asked to look at a variety of groups—including women, African Americans, and ethnic minorities—many of whose members felt marginalized or underrepresented, became politically active, and helped to establish social movements dedicated to the advancement of their communities. Students can use these documents to determine the degree to which different groups sought to redefine American democracy and make it more inclusive.

Other Americans: The Beats
Resource Type: Primary Source
Allen Ginsberg, in a photograph taken at his enrollment in Columbia University (1943).

Other Americans: The Beats
Resource Type: Primary Source
While a student at Columbia University, Allen Ginsberg took courses with Lionel Trilling, the great literary scholar.

Other Americans: The Beats
Resource Type: Primary Source
Peter Orlovsky and Gregory Corso, fellow Beats, listen to Allen Ginsberg read poetry at Columbia University (1959).

Other Americans: The Beats
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover from a 1959 edition of Howl and Other Poems by Allen Ginsberg. This collection was first published by City Lights Books in 1956.

Other Americans: The Beats
Resource Type: Primary Source
Allen Ginsberg at home (1966).

Environmental Critique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Rachel Carson, author and environmentalist, at her typewriter (1952).

Environmental Critique: DDT
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (1962), which exposed data on the harmful effects of DDT and other chemical pesticides.

Environmental Critique: Pollution and Health
Resource Type: Primary Source
Early ban-the-bomb protest outside the United Nations.

America Since 1945—E-Seminar 4, The Subversive Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In The Subversive Fifties, the fourth e-seminar in the series America Since 1945, the eminent historian Alan Brinkley discusses a variety of early counterculture movements—literary, social, and environmental—whose origins date back to the 1950s and early 1960s. He also covers the roots of the civil-rights movement, discussing the Montgomery bus boycott, in which Martin Luther King Jr. first gained national attention.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Democracy: Limitations and Possibilities
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
During the 1960s, a series of widely disparate protest movements emerged in the United States. While the antiwar movement directed against U.S. intervention in the Vietnam War appeared to be the most salient, many others as well expressed discontent with American government and society. In this question, students are asked to look at a variety of groups—including women, African Americans, and ethnic minorities—many of whose members felt marginalized or underrepresented, became politically active, and helped to establish social movements dedicated to the advancement of their communities. Students can use these documents to determine the degree to which different groups sought to redefine American democracy and make it more inclusive.


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