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APUSH-4

Road to Revolution, 1754-1775


A.  Anglo-French rivalries and Seven Years' War

B.  Imperial reorganization of 1763

1.  Stamp Act

2.  Declaratory Act

3.  Townshend Acts

4.  Boston Tea Party

C.  Philosophy of the American Revolution


Resources:

Colonial City: Revolutionary Battleground
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
British New York

Relevant interactive tools:
Things Happen in New York, Not Boston
Things Happen in New York, Not Boston

The Struggle for Freedom
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
Meanings of Freedom: Political Freedom
Meanings of Freedom: Economic Independence
Meanings of Freedom: Slavery Denounced
The American Revolution: Black Patriots
The American Revolution: Black Intellectuals
Who's who

Relevant texts:
Transcript of Lord Dunmore's proclamation freeing slaves who join the British cause, November 7, 1775.
Transcript of Lord Dunmore's proclamation freeing slaves who join the British cause, November 7, 1775.

Relevant transcripts:
Professor Foner examines the rhetoric of liberty and slavery.
Professor Foner discusses slaves as property.

Relevant interactive tools:
The Struggle for Freedom: Timeline
The Struggle for Freedom: Timeline

Abolitionism and Antislavery
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
The Abolitionist Position: Core Concepts

Slavery and Emancipation—E-Seminar 2, The Struggle for Freedom
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In this second e-seminar of his Slavery and Emancipation series, Professor Eric Foner examines slavery and the American Revolution. He examines the dramatic struggle for freedom waged concurrently by American colonists against the British Empire and by blacks against the institution of slavery. While blacks seized the revolutionary rhetoric of liberty and equality to justify their natural right to freedom, the U.S. Constitution protected the institution of slavery.

The American Revolution: Defeat and Victory in New York
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
New York City was a center of loyalist support and trans-Atlantic trade during the revolutionary era. The documents on the Battle of Brooklyn, the British occupation, and the end of the Revolutionary war demonstrate how these events were turned into victories for New York, establishing the city's path toward national and world prominence.

The American Revolution and Its Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
In exploring the radical and conservative aspects of the American Revolution, these documents introduce students to the principles of equality and republicanism and the arguments for independence from Great Britain (via the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine's Common Sense).

Freedom Petition of Massachusetts Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
Four slaves submitted this letter to the provincial legislature in Massachusetts on April 20, 1773.

First Continental Congress Declaration and Resolves
Resource Type: Primary Source
Representatives of twelve of the thirteen original colonies met in Philadelphia in September and October of 1774 to develop a common response to the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts.

Common Sense
Resource Type: Primary Source
Thomas Paine (1737–1809) was born in England and emigrated to the colonies in 1774. In Common Sense, Paine articulates his argument for independence.

The Declaration of Independence
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress asserted American independence from Britain and justified its decision to do so by citing a series of alleged violations of American rights.

Memoirs of Captain Alexander Graydon
Resource Type: Primary Source
Alexander Graydon (1752–1818), a captain in the Continental army, recounted the problems he encountered as he recruited men to fight the war, and he commented on the meaning of the Revolution.

A Whig Freeholder on Emancipation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Pennsylvania, like many of the Northern states, established gradual emancipation.

Otis on the Rights of the British Colonies
Resource Type: Primary Source
James Otis (1725–83) was a political activist during the period leading up to the American Revolution. In pamphlets, he articulated grievances against the British government.

Give Me Liberty, or Give Me Death
Resource Type: Primary Source
At the second Virginia Convention, on March 23, 1775, Patrick Henry (1736–99) delivered this speech in which he argued that war with Great Britain was inevitable.

Lord Dunmore's Call to Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
In November 1775, Lord Dunmore called on slaves to desert their masters and join the British army.

Freedom Petition of New Hampshire Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
During the revolutionary era, many slaves petitioned colonial or state legislatures for their freedom and filed freedom suits, such as the one submitted by Nero Brewster, a slave, in Portsmouth on November 12, 1779.

The American Revolution and Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The revolutionary era (1775–89) gave birth to contradictory definitions of freedom and equality. For some, freedom and equality entailed the right to property, including slave property. For others, freedom and equality implied universal entitlements that applied to all individuals, including slaves. This DBQ offers students the opportunity to debate these contradictory definitions by analyzing the definition of freedom each author uses in the provided documents.

The American Revolution and the Meaning of Equality
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation, which recreates the Revolutionary era, students are asked to probe and debate the contemporary meanings of freedom and equality. They will examine the defining principles of the Founding Fathers and the U.S. Constitution, with a view toward understanding their impact on American political institutions and thought.

Benjamin Banneker (1731–1806)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Benjamin Banneker (1731–1806) was the first important black scientist in the United States. He taught himself calculus and trigonometry and created almanacs that made him famous, one of which he sent to Thomas Jefferson, who was at the time, secretary of state. Abolition societies presented his almanacs as evidence of the intellectual capabilities of blacks.

The American Revolution and Its Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
In exploring the radical and conservative aspects of the American Revolution, these documents introduce students to the principles of equality and republicanism and the arguments for independence from Great Britain (via the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine's Common Sense).

A Whig Freeholder on Emancipation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Pennsylvania, like many of the Northern states, established gradual emancipation.

Otis on the Rights of the British Colonies
Resource Type: Primary Source
James Otis (1725–83) was a political activist during the period leading up to the American Revolution. In pamphlets, he articulated grievances against the British government.

Vermont's Constitution, 1777
Resource Type: Primary Source
The 1777 Vermont constitution included a clause that allowed for gradual emancipation.

An Act for Enfranchising Ned Griffin
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the wake of the Revolution, many Southern states liberalized their provisions for manumission. This came to an end between 1810 and 1820, as Southern lawmakers restricted, and in some cases barred, manumission.

Manumission of Slaves in Maryland
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the wake of the Revolution, many Southern states liberalized their provisions for manumission. This period of liberalized manumission came to an end between 1810 and 1820.

The American Revolution and Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The revolutionary era (1775–89) gave birth to contradictory definitions of freedom and equality. For some, freedom and equality entailed the right to property, including slave property. For others, freedom and equality implied universal entitlements that applied to all individuals, including slaves. This DBQ offers students the opportunity to debate these contradictory definitions by analyzing the definition of freedom each author uses in the provided documents.


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