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APUSH-5-F

Creating state governments


1.  Political organization

2.  Social reform: women, slavery


Resources:

History as Destiny: The Case of New York City
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant interactive tools:
Political Capitals
Political Capitals

Colonial City: Revolutionary Battleground
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant transcripts:
Empire City and State

Urban Crisis: Fire and Water
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant transcripts:
Solving the Fire Problem

The Origins of Slavery in the New World
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
The Dream of Freedom

The Struggle for Freedom
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
Meanings of Freedom: Slavery Denounced
The American Revolution: Black Intellectuals
The American Revolution: Early Abolitionists
American Nationhood: Jefferson and Washington

Relevant texts:
1773 Freedom Petition submitted by slaves in Boston.
1779 Freedom Petition submitted by slaves in New Hampshire.
1781 Letter and Freedom Petition submitted by freed slaves urging the Pennsylvania state legislature not to rescind their status as free persons.
Letter from Benjamin Banneker to Thomas Jefferson, 1791.
Response from Jefferson to Banneker, 1791.

Relevant transcripts:
Professor Foner Discusses former slave, Phillis Wheatley, an important black writer
Professor Foner discusses the first attempts to abolish slavery in the North.
Professor Foner discusses the Founding Fathers' views on slavery

Relevant interactive tools:
Providing a long-term perspective on the history of slavery, Professor Foner argues that slavery in the New World was different from slavery in Africa.
Providing a long-term perspective on the history of slavery, Professor Foner argues that slavery in the New World was different from slavery in Africa.

Fire
Resource Type: Primary Source
Since 1873, New York has had fireboxes on its streets.

The American Revolution and Its Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
In exploring the radical and conservative aspects of the American Revolution, these documents introduce students to the principles of equality and republicanism and the arguments for independence from Great Britain (via the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine's Common Sense).

Abigail Adams to John Adams
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1776, Abigail Adams wrote a letter to her husband, John Adams, who was then attending the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

Benjamin Rush on the Confederation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Benjamin Rush (c. 1745–1813) was an American physician and signer of the Declaration of Independence. He served as a member of the Continental Congress (1776–77) and for a time in the Continental army; he was also a member of the Pennsylvania convention that ratified the U.S. Constitution.

Jefferson on Slavery
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jefferson questioned the effects of slavery and slaveholding, and foretold its end.

The American Revolution and Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The revolutionary era (1775–89) gave birth to contradictory definitions of freedom and equality. For some, freedom and equality entailed the right to property, including slave property. For others, freedom and equality implied universal entitlements that applied to all individuals, including slaves. This DBQ offers students the opportunity to debate these contradictory definitions by analyzing the definition of freedom each author uses in the provided documents.

Benjamin Banneker (1731–1806)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Benjamin Banneker (1731–1806) was the first important black scientist in the United States. He taught himself calculus and trigonometry and created almanacs that made him famous, one of which he sent to Thomas Jefferson, who was at the time, secretary of state. Abolition societies presented his almanacs as evidence of the intellectual capabilities of blacks.

Benjamin Banneker (1731–1806)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Benjamin Banneker (1731–1806) was the first important black scientist in the United States. He taught himself calculus and trigonometry and created almanacs that made him famous, one of which he sent to Thomas Jefferson, who was at the time, secretary of state. Abolition societies presented his almanacs as evidence of the intellectual capabilities of blacks.

Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) expressed his views on blacks and slavery in his book Notes on the State of Virginia, first published in 1781 with corrections and additions published in 1782. The conflicts between Jefferson's private (if inconsistent) somewhat favorable view of blacks and his public assertions and actions bedevil his reputation as a founding father. In 1800 he became the third president of the United States.

Phillis Wheatley (c. 1753–84)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Phillis Wheatley (c. 1753–84), born in Africa, was the first black woman whose poetry was published in the Western Hemisphere. In Europe and the United States in the 1780s, she developed a reputation as a literary figure. A devout Christian, she wove religious themes into many of her poems, including her eulogy for Samuel Sewall, author of The Selling of Joseph.

Meanings of Freedom: Slavery Denounced
Resource Type: Primary Source

The American Revolution: Black Intellectuals
Resource Type: Primary Source
Phillis Wheatley (1753-84) is the first black woman whose poetry is published in the United States and Great Britain.

The American Revolution: Free Blacks
Resource Type: Primary Source
Richard Allen (1760–1831), founder and first bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church.

American Nationhood: Jefferson and Washington
Resource Type: Primary Source
Benjamin Banneker

Conclusion
Resource Type: Primary Source
An Overseer Doing His Duty by Benjamin Henry Latrobe. In this antislavery watercolor, two female slaves labor under the surveillance of a relaxed overseer (1865).

The American Revolution and Its Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
In exploring the radical and conservative aspects of the American Revolution, these documents introduce students to the principles of equality and republicanism and the arguments for independence from Great Britain (via the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine's Common Sense).

Abigail Adams to John Adams
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1776, Abigail Adams wrote a letter to her husband, John Adams, who was then attending the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

Manumission of Slaves in North Carolina
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the wake of the Revolution, many Southern states liberalized their provisions for manumission. By 1790, slaveholders could manumit their slaves throughout the South, except in North Carolina.

The Declaration of Independence
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress asserted American independence from Britain and justified its decision to do so by citing a series of alleged violations of American rights.

A Whig Freeholder on Emancipation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Pennsylvania, like many of the Northern states, established gradual emancipation.

Rewards for Revolutionary War Veterans
Resource Type: Primary Source
North Carolina, like other states, rewarded veterans of the American Revolution with the granting of land and slaves.

Benjamin Rush on the Confederation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Benjamin Rush (c. 1745–1813) was an American physician and signer of the Declaration of Independence. He served as a member of the Continental Congress (1776–77) and for a time in the Continental army; he was also a member of the Pennsylvania convention that ratified the U.S. Constitution.

Jefferson on Slavery
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jefferson questioned the effects of slavery and slaveholding, and foretold its end.

Lord Dunmore's Call to Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
In November 1775, Lord Dunmore called on slaves to desert their masters and join the British army.

Vermont's Constitution, 1777
Resource Type: Primary Source
The 1777 Vermont constitution included a clause that allowed for gradual emancipation.

Freedom Petition of New Hampshire Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
During the revolutionary era, many slaves petitioned colonial or state legislatures for their freedom and filed freedom suits, such as the one submitted by Nero Brewster, a slave, in Portsmouth on November 12, 1779.

An Act for Enfranchising Ned Griffin
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the wake of the Revolution, many Southern states liberalized their provisions for manumission. This came to an end between 1810 and 1820, as Southern lawmakers restricted, and in some cases barred, manumission.

Jefferson on Emancipation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), in this letter to Edward Coles (1786–1868), maintained that emancipation was a task for the younger generation.

The American Revolution and Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The revolutionary era (1775–89) gave birth to contradictory definitions of freedom and equality. For some, freedom and equality entailed the right to property, including slave property. For others, freedom and equality implied universal entitlements that applied to all individuals, including slaves. This DBQ offers students the opportunity to debate these contradictory definitions by analyzing the definition of freedom each author uses in the provided documents.


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