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APUSH-5

The American Revolution, 1775-1783


A.  Continental Congress

B.  Declaration of Independence

C.  The war

1.  French alliance

2.  War and society; Loyalists

3.  War economy

D.  Articles of Confederation

E.  Peace of Paris

F.  Creating state governments

1.  Political organization

2.  Social reform: women, slavery


Resources:

History as Destiny: The Case of New York City
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant interactive tools:
Political Capitals
Political Capitals

Colonial City: Revolutionary Battleground
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
The Fight for New York

Relevant transcripts:
The British Army
Washington's Retreat
Victory at Barnard
The Battle of Fort Washington
The Battle of Fort Lee
The City Burns
Nathan Hale
Commercial Links to the Old World
Empire City and State

Relevant interactive tools:
New York in Revolution
The Howe Brothers
Washington's Dilemma Part 1
The Battle of Long Island
Washington's Dilemma Part 2
Washington's Dilemma Part 3
Washington and Ho Chi Minh
New York in Revolution
The Howe Brothers
Washington's Dilemma Part 1
The Battle of Long Island
Washington's Dilemma Part 2
Washington's Dilemma Part 3
Washington and Ho Chi Minh

Urban Crisis: Fire and Water
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant transcripts:
Solving the Fire Problem

The Origins of Slavery in the New World
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
The Dream of Freedom

The Struggle for Freedom
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
Meanings of Freedom: Slavery Denounced
The American Revolution: Black Patriots
The American Revolution: Black Loyalists
The American Revolution: Black Intellectuals
The American Revolution: Early Abolitionists
The American Revolution: Slavery Expands
American Nationhood: Jefferson and Washington
Conclusion
Who's who

Relevant texts:
1773 Freedom Petition submitted by slaves in Boston.
1779 Freedom Petition submitted by slaves in New Hampshire.
1781 Letter and Freedom Petition submitted by freed slaves urging the Pennsylvania state legislature not to rescind their status as free persons.
Transcript of clause in Jefferson's rough draft of the Declaration of Independence, June, 1776.
Transcript of clause in Jefferson's rough draft of the Declaration of Independence, June, 1776.
1773 Freedom Petition submitted by slaves in Boston.
1779 Freedom Petition submitted by slaves in New Hampshire.
1781 Letter and Freedom Petition submitted by freed slaves urging the Pennsylvania state legislature not to rescind their status as free persons.
Letter from Benjamin Banneker to Thomas Jefferson, 1791.
Response from Jefferson to Banneker, 1791.

Relevant transcripts:
Professor Foner introduces the contradiction of slavery.
Professor Foner discusses slaves as property.
Professor Foner examines the black struggle for freedom.
Professor Foner Discusses former slave, Phillis Wheatley, an important black writer
Professor Foner discusses the first attempts to abolish slavery in the North.
Professor Foner discusses the Founding Fathers' views on slavery

Relevant interactive tools:
Providing a long-term perspective on the history of slavery, Professor Foner argues that slavery in the New World was different from slavery in Africa.
Providing a long-term perspective on the history of slavery, Professor Foner argues that slavery in the New World was different from slavery in Africa.
The Struggle for Freedom: Timeline
The Struggle for Freedom: Timeline

Abolitionism and Antislavery
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
The Abolitionist Position: Core Concepts

Relevant texts:
W. L. Garrison, "To the Public," from the Liberator.
Preamble to the Declaration of Independence

The History of the City of New York—E-Seminar 2, Colonial City: Revolutionary Battleground
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In his second e-seminar, Kenneth T. Jackson traces New York City's commercial character back to the days of Dutch New Amsterdam. He then examines New York's role in the Revolutionary War and the remarkable growth it experienced largely as a result of the Erie Canal.

Michigan Anti-communist Law
Resource Type: Primary Source
The state of Michigan passed this legislation in 1952.

The American Revolution: Defeat and Victory in New York
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
New York City was a center of loyalist support and trans-Atlantic trade during the revolutionary era. The documents on the Battle of Brooklyn, the British occupation, and the end of the Revolutionary war demonstrate how these events were turned into victories for New York, establishing the city's path toward national and world prominence.

The American Revolution and Its Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
In exploring the radical and conservative aspects of the American Revolution, these documents introduce students to the principles of equality and republicanism and the arguments for independence from Great Britain (via the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine's Common Sense).

Freedom Petition of Massachusetts Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
Four slaves submitted this letter to the provincial legislature in Massachusetts on April 20, 1773.

First Continental Congress Declaration and Resolves
Resource Type: Primary Source
Representatives of twelve of the thirteen original colonies met in Philadelphia in September and October of 1774 to develop a common response to the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts.

Common Sense
Resource Type: Primary Source
Thomas Paine (1737–1809) was born in England and emigrated to the colonies in 1774. In Common Sense, Paine articulates his argument for independence.

Abigail Adams to John Adams
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1776, Abigail Adams wrote a letter to her husband, John Adams, who was then attending the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

Manumission of Slaves in North Carolina
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the wake of the Revolution, many Southern states liberalized their provisions for manumission. By 1790, slaveholders could manumit their slaves throughout the South, except in North Carolina.

The Declaration of Independence
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress asserted American independence from Britain and justified its decision to do so by citing a series of alleged violations of American rights.

Memoirs of Captain Alexander Graydon
Resource Type: Primary Source
Alexander Graydon (1752–1818), a captain in the Continental army, recounted the problems he encountered as he recruited men to fight the war, and he commented on the meaning of the Revolution.

A Whig Freeholder on Emancipation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Pennsylvania, like many of the Northern states, established gradual emancipation.

Rewards for Revolutionary War Veterans
Resource Type: Primary Source
North Carolina, like other states, rewarded veterans of the American Revolution with the granting of land and slaves.

Benjamin Rush on the Confederation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Benjamin Rush (c. 1745–1813) was an American physician and signer of the Declaration of Independence. He served as a member of the Continental Congress (1776–77) and for a time in the Continental army; he was also a member of the Pennsylvania convention that ratified the U.S. Constitution.

Otis on the Rights of the British Colonies
Resource Type: Primary Source
James Otis (1725–83) was a political activist during the period leading up to the American Revolution. In pamphlets, he articulated grievances against the British government.

Give Me Liberty, or Give Me Death
Resource Type: Primary Source
At the second Virginia Convention, on March 23, 1775, Patrick Henry (1736–99) delivered this speech in which he argued that war with Great Britain was inevitable.

Lord Dunmore's Call to Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
In November 1775, Lord Dunmore called on slaves to desert their masters and join the British army.

Vermont's Constitution, 1777
Resource Type: Primary Source
The 1777 Vermont constitution included a clause that allowed for gradual emancipation.

Freedom Petition of New Hampshire Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
During the revolutionary era, many slaves petitioned colonial or state legislatures for their freedom and filed freedom suits, such as the one submitted by Nero Brewster, a slave, in Portsmouth on November 12, 1779.

An Act for Enfranchising Ned Griffin
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the wake of the Revolution, many Southern states liberalized their provisions for manumission. This came to an end between 1810 and 1820, as Southern lawmakers restricted, and in some cases barred, manumission.

Manumission of Slaves in Maryland
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the wake of the Revolution, many Southern states liberalized their provisions for manumission. This period of liberalized manumission came to an end between 1810 and 1820.

Jefferson on Emancipation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), in this letter to Edward Coles (1786–1868), maintained that emancipation was a task for the younger generation.

The American Revolution and Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The revolutionary era (1775–89) gave birth to contradictory definitions of freedom and equality. For some, freedom and equality entailed the right to property, including slave property. For others, freedom and equality implied universal entitlements that applied to all individuals, including slaves. This DBQ offers students the opportunity to debate these contradictory definitions by analyzing the definition of freedom each author uses in the provided documents.

The American Revolution and the Meaning of Equality
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation, which recreates the Revolutionary era, students are asked to probe and debate the contemporary meanings of freedom and equality. They will examine the defining principles of the Founding Fathers and the U.S. Constitution, with a view toward understanding their impact on American political institutions and thought.

The American Revolution and Its Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
In exploring the radical and conservative aspects of the American Revolution, these documents introduce students to the principles of equality and republicanism and the arguments for independence from Great Britain (via the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine's Common Sense).

Abigail Adams to John Adams
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1776, Abigail Adams wrote a letter to her husband, John Adams, who was then attending the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

Meanings of Freedom: Slavery Denounced
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Selling of Joseph by Samuel Sewall is the first antislavery tract published in America (1700).

The Abolitionist Position: Core Concepts
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Declaration of Independence. Engraving of the original document (1823).

The American Revolution and Its Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
In exploring the radical and conservative aspects of the American Revolution, these documents introduce students to the principles of equality and republicanism and the arguments for independence from Great Britain (via the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine's Common Sense).

The Declaration of Independence
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress asserted American independence from Britain and justified its decision to do so by citing a series of alleged violations of American rights.

The American Revolution and Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The revolutionary era (1775–89) gave birth to contradictory definitions of freedom and equality. For some, freedom and equality entailed the right to property, including slave property. For others, freedom and equality implied universal entitlements that applied to all individuals, including slaves. This DBQ offers students the opportunity to debate these contradictory definitions by analyzing the definition of freedom each author uses in the provided documents.

Memoirs of Captain Alexander Graydon
Resource Type: Primary Source
Alexander Graydon (1752–1818), a captain in the Continental army, recounted the problems he encountered as he recruited men to fight the war, and he commented on the meaning of the Revolution.

Lord Dunmore's Call to Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
In November 1775, Lord Dunmore called on slaves to desert their masters and join the British army.

The American Revolution: Black Loyalists
Resource Type: Primary Source
The black soldier is a member of the Hessian troops, German mercenary soldiers hired by the British to fight the Americans.

Rewards for Revolutionary War Veterans
Resource Type: Primary Source
North Carolina, like other states, rewarded veterans of the American Revolution with the granting of land and slaves.

Fire
Resource Type: Primary Source
Since 1873, New York has had fireboxes on its streets.

The American Revolution and Its Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
In exploring the radical and conservative aspects of the American Revolution, these documents introduce students to the principles of equality and republicanism and the arguments for independence from Great Britain (via the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine's Common Sense).

Abigail Adams to John Adams
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1776, Abigail Adams wrote a letter to her husband, John Adams, who was then attending the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

Benjamin Rush on the Confederation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Benjamin Rush (c. 1745–1813) was an American physician and signer of the Declaration of Independence. He served as a member of the Continental Congress (1776–77) and for a time in the Continental army; he was also a member of the Pennsylvania convention that ratified the U.S. Constitution.

Jefferson on Slavery
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jefferson questioned the effects of slavery and slaveholding, and foretold its end.

The American Revolution and Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The revolutionary era (1775–89) gave birth to contradictory definitions of freedom and equality. For some, freedom and equality entailed the right to property, including slave property. For others, freedom and equality implied universal entitlements that applied to all individuals, including slaves. This DBQ offers students the opportunity to debate these contradictory definitions by analyzing the definition of freedom each author uses in the provided documents.

Benjamin Banneker (1731–1806)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Benjamin Banneker (1731–1806) was the first important black scientist in the United States. He taught himself calculus and trigonometry and created almanacs that made him famous, one of which he sent to Thomas Jefferson, who was at the time, secretary of state. Abolition societies presented his almanacs as evidence of the intellectual capabilities of blacks.

Benjamin Banneker (1731–1806)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Benjamin Banneker (1731–1806) was the first important black scientist in the United States. He taught himself calculus and trigonometry and created almanacs that made him famous, one of which he sent to Thomas Jefferson, who was at the time, secretary of state. Abolition societies presented his almanacs as evidence of the intellectual capabilities of blacks.

Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) expressed his views on blacks and slavery in his book Notes on the State of Virginia, first published in 1781 with corrections and additions published in 1782. The conflicts between Jefferson's private (if inconsistent) somewhat favorable view of blacks and his public assertions and actions bedevil his reputation as a founding father. In 1800 he became the third president of the United States.

Phillis Wheatley (c. 1753–84)
Resource Type: Primary Source
Phillis Wheatley (c. 1753–84), born in Africa, was the first black woman whose poetry was published in the Western Hemisphere. In Europe and the United States in the 1780s, she developed a reputation as a literary figure. A devout Christian, she wove religious themes into many of her poems, including her eulogy for Samuel Sewall, author of The Selling of Joseph.

Meanings of Freedom: Slavery Denounced
Resource Type: Primary Source

The American Revolution: Black Intellectuals
Resource Type: Primary Source
Phillis Wheatley (1753-84) is the first black woman whose poetry is published in the United States and Great Britain.

The American Revolution: Free Blacks
Resource Type: Primary Source
Richard Allen (1760–1831), founder and first bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church.

American Nationhood: Jefferson and Washington
Resource Type: Primary Source
Benjamin Banneker

Conclusion
Resource Type: Primary Source
An Overseer Doing His Duty by Benjamin Henry Latrobe. In this antislavery watercolor, two female slaves labor under the surveillance of a relaxed overseer (1865).

The American Revolution and Its Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
In exploring the radical and conservative aspects of the American Revolution, these documents introduce students to the principles of equality and republicanism and the arguments for independence from Great Britain (via the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine's Common Sense).

Abigail Adams to John Adams
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1776, Abigail Adams wrote a letter to her husband, John Adams, who was then attending the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

Manumission of Slaves in North Carolina
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the wake of the Revolution, many Southern states liberalized their provisions for manumission. By 1790, slaveholders could manumit their slaves throughout the South, except in North Carolina.

The Declaration of Independence
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress asserted American independence from Britain and justified its decision to do so by citing a series of alleged violations of American rights.

A Whig Freeholder on Emancipation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Pennsylvania, like many of the Northern states, established gradual emancipation.

Rewards for Revolutionary War Veterans
Resource Type: Primary Source
North Carolina, like other states, rewarded veterans of the American Revolution with the granting of land and slaves.

Benjamin Rush on the Confederation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Benjamin Rush (c. 1745–1813) was an American physician and signer of the Declaration of Independence. He served as a member of the Continental Congress (1776–77) and for a time in the Continental army; he was also a member of the Pennsylvania convention that ratified the U.S. Constitution.

Jefferson on Slavery
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jefferson questioned the effects of slavery and slaveholding, and foretold its end.

Lord Dunmore's Call to Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
In November 1775, Lord Dunmore called on slaves to desert their masters and join the British army.

Vermont's Constitution, 1777
Resource Type: Primary Source
The 1777 Vermont constitution included a clause that allowed for gradual emancipation.

Freedom Petition of New Hampshire Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
During the revolutionary era, many slaves petitioned colonial or state legislatures for their freedom and filed freedom suits, such as the one submitted by Nero Brewster, a slave, in Portsmouth on November 12, 1779.

An Act for Enfranchising Ned Griffin
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the wake of the Revolution, many Southern states liberalized their provisions for manumission. This came to an end between 1810 and 1820, as Southern lawmakers restricted, and in some cases barred, manumission.

Jefferson on Emancipation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), in this letter to Edward Coles (1786–1868), maintained that emancipation was a task for the younger generation.

The American Revolution and Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The revolutionary era (1775–89) gave birth to contradictory definitions of freedom and equality. For some, freedom and equality entailed the right to property, including slave property. For others, freedom and equality implied universal entitlements that applied to all individuals, including slaves. This DBQ offers students the opportunity to debate these contradictory definitions by analyzing the definition of freedom each author uses in the provided documents.


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