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The North

1.  Northeast industry

1a.  Labor

1b.  Immigration

1c.  Urban slums

2.  Northwest agriculture


Urban Crisis: Fire and Water
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant interactive tools:
Four images.
Four images.

The Old South
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Slave Life and Culture: Varieties of Slave Labor

City Problems: Poverty and Slums
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Exploring the cholera epidemic in mid-nineteenth century New York City, this selection of primary sources provides a case-study of immigration, urbanization (e.g., slums such as the Five Points), and social and moral reform that can be applied to the study of any city in the industrialized world.

The Cholera Epidemic
Resource Type: Primary Source
Many of New York's Protestant leaders interpreted the 1832 cholera epidemic as proof of God's displeasure with contemporary morality.

Charles Dickens on the Five Points
Resource Type: Primary Source
The famed British writer Charles Dickens published his account of his 1842 visit to America, where he found evidence of England's superior class system in the squalor of New York's Five Points slum.

The Secession Crisis
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This selection of primary sources allows students to interpret the Civil War as an ideological battle, pitting abolitionists against slavery's apologists, and Northerners against Southerners. Students will understand why most of the Southern states chose secession over union.

Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl
Resource Type: Primary Source
By 1858, the former slave Harriet Jacobs had finished her autobiography, which was later edited by the famous abolitionist, Lydia Maria Child.

The Cotton Kingdom: The Industrial Revolution
Resource Type: Primary Source
Power loom weaving in a New England textile factory. The leather belts transmitted power from a central waterwheel or a steam engine.

Report of the Magdalen Society
Resource Type: Primary Source
Led by John Robert McDowell, a Princeton divinity student, the Magdalen Society was founded in 1831 to help reform prostitutes living in the Five Points slum.

Annual Report of the Interments
Resource Type: Primary Source
Dr. John Hoskins Griscom (1809–74), a Quaker physician, founded the New York Academy of Medicine and pioneered the field of public health. His advocacy for sanitation, medical care, and adequate housing led to the great reforms of the Progressive Era after the Civil War.

Illustrations of the Pro-Slavery Argument
Resource Type: Primary Source
These illustrations support the institution of slavery. Why?

Conditions of Slaves vs. Free Laborers
Resource Type: Primary Source
Historians consider George Fitzhugh (1806–81) as one of the most eloquent, influential, and popular spokespersons for slavery.

Capitalism, Slavery, and Free Labor
Resource Type: Primary Source
Apologists for slavery, like George Fitzhugh, often argued that the investment in slaves positively influenced the way slaveowners treated them.

Lincoln on Striking Shoemakers
Resource Type: Primary Source
During the presidential campaign in 1860, Abraham Lincoln traveled to New England and gave the following speech related to the famous strike of shoemakers in Lynn, Massachusetts. The newspaper that reprinted the speech indicated the audience's reaction in the bracketed information, provided in the excerpt below.

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