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NCHS-6-1

How the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed the American people


A.  The student understands the connections among industrialization, the advent of the modern corporation, and material well-being

B.  The student understands the rapid growth of cities and how urban life changed

C.  The student understands how agriculture, mining, and ranching were transformed

D.  The student understands the effects of rapid industrialization on the environment and the emergence of the first conservation movement


Resources:

History as Destiny: The Case of New York City
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant transcripts:
Cities Have Personalities Too

Relevant interactive tools:
New York Enchants John Reed
New York Enchants John Reed
Cities as Playgrounds
Military Establishments
Cities as Playgrounds
Military Establishments
French Cities
Newport
Charleston
Philadelphia
French Cities
Newport
Charleston
Philadelphia

Urban Crisis: Fire and Water
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
New York City Grows
Disasters

Relevant texts:
Telegraphs and Building Codes
More Water than Any Other Large City

Relevant transcripts:
Growth Causes Problems
The Urban Response
Solving the Fire Problem
Tales of Warning

Relevant interactive tools:
SIDEBAR: Chicago and San Francisco
SIDEBAR: Chicago and San Francisco

Urban Crisis: Disease, Crime, and Space
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Central Park
Public Health
Crime and Public Order

Relevant texts:
Preventing Cholera
One-Tenth the Death
Never Again

Relevant transcripts:
Creating Safety
Summer of 1863
Response to the Riots

Relevant interactive tools:
Central Park Bird's Eye View. Lithograph by Bachman (1863).
Central Park Bird's Eye View. Lithograph by Bachman (1863).

City Problems: Poverty and Slums
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Exploring the cholera epidemic in mid-nineteenth century New York City, this selection of primary sources provides a case-study of immigration, urbanization (e.g., slums such as the Five Points), and social and moral reform that can be applied to the study of any city in the industrialized world.

Sunshine and Shadow in New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
Sunshine and Shadow in New York, a mid-nineteenth-century publication, depicts New York City as two polar societies, one affluent and vibrant, and one poor and diseased.

How the Other Half Lives
Resource Type: Primary Source
Newspaper reporters, such as Jacob Riis (1849–1914), played an instrumental role in exposing the destitution and misery of New York's immigrant and working-class neighborhoods.

The Environmental Movements
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The larger issues of western expansion, industrialization, urbanization, and progressivism are explored in this DBQ on the environmental movements that arose at the end of the nineteenth century.

Women and the Progressive Era
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The discussion of women at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century is often separated into different chapters and topics. This DBQ asks students to combine what they have learned about American society and about the changing roles and perceptions of women to evaluate the women's movement during the Progressive Era.

Roosevelt on the Conservation Movement
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1907, President Theodore Roosevelt explained in a speech to Congress the purpose of the Conservation Movement and how the government would seek to implement its goals.

How the Other Half Lives
Resource Type: Primary Source
Newspaper reporters, such as Jacob Riis (1849–1914), played an instrumental role in exposing the destitution and misery of New York's immigrant and working-class neighborhoods.

Railroad Ad
Resource Type: Primary Source
This Northern Pacific Railroad advertisement appeared in a 1900 issue of Harper's Weekly. The advertisement promotes travel to Yellowstone National Park.

Striking Shirtwaist-Makers Selling Socialist Newspaper
Resource Type: Primary Source
Many Jewish women were very involved in labor and socialist movements, as seen in this 1910 photograph of striking shirtwaist-makers selling copies of The Call, the New York socialist daily.

Scientific Advances and Thinking
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
By the late-nineteenth century, science and scientific thought influenced American intellectual life and culture. The documents attached to this DBQ allow students to assess how the achievements of science were both admired and feared.

Kodak Camera Ad
Resource Type: Primary Source
This advertisement for Kodak cameras appeared in a 1900 issue of the magazine Youth's Companion.

Remington Typewriter Company Ad
Resource Type: Primary Source
In a 1905 advertisement, the Remington Typewriter Company used two letters by Mark Twain to illustrate how his attitude toward the typewriter had changed over a period of thirty years.

Out in the Automobile
Resource Type: Primary Source
The comedian Arthur Collins and the tenor Byron Harlan wrote lyrics for many humorous songs. "Out in the Automobile" pokes fun at early-twentieth-century cars.

The Principles of Scientific Management
Resource Type: Primary Source
Frederick W. Taylor was a mechanical engineer who wrote extensively about scientific management, a method of managing groups of people based on scientific principles, as part of progressive notions of efficiency. His ideas influenced business management theory in America and around the world. The Principles of Scientific Management is a collection of his essays published in 1911.

Mechanized Home Laundry
Resource Type: Primary Source
This drawing dramatically illustrates the increasing mechanization of domestic life during the second decade of the twentieth century.

Social Darwinism: Its Influence and Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Social Darwinism is usually understood as an ideology that justified survival of the fittest, that argued against government intervention or social reform to improve society. The documents in this DBQ, however, point to the complexity of social-Darwinist thought, considering how a progressive version fueled the Progressive Era and how a conservative strand exerted tremendous influence in American political thought.

The Political Economist and the Tramp
Resource Type: Primary Source
In this poem, Phillips Thompson pokes fun at certain notions of Social Darwinism.

Sumner on Social Darwinism
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Graham Sumner was an American social scientist influenced by Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin. Sumner applied Darwin's evolutionary theory to human society.

Carnegie on Wealth
Resource Type: Primary Source
Andrew Carnegie made millions in the steel industry during the nineteeth century. While he was willing to share his wealth with those less fortunate than himself, he did set certain restrictions, as outlined in his 1889 article "Wealth."

Evolution and Labor Movements
Resource Type: Primary Source
In this 1893 magazine, an unknown writer comments on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution as it applied to the labor movement.

City Problems: Poverty and Slums
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Exploring the cholera epidemic in mid-nineteenth century New York City, this selection of primary sources provides a case-study of immigration, urbanization (e.g., slums such as the Five Points), and social and moral reform that can be applied to the study of any city in the industrialized world.

Petition to Have the Five Points Opened
Resource Type: Primary Source
Merchants owning property along the periphery of Five Points petitioned the municipal government in 1829 to demolish the heart of the slum by widening and extending Anthony and Cross Streets.

Daily Tally of Cholera Victims
Resource Type: Primary Source
Due to overcrowding and poor sanitation, the Five Points slum suffered numerous casualties during outbreaks of disease, as this daily report taken during the 1832 cholera epidemic makes clear.

Cholera Outbreak
Resource Type: Primary Source
This article, written during the cholera epidemic of 1832, conveyed the opinion that only certain social types contracted the deadly disease.

Cholera Epidemic Editorial
Resource Type: Primary Source
As far away as New Hampshire, editorials denounced the New York cholera epidemic of 1832 as divine retribution for decadence and sin.

Annual Report of the Interments
Resource Type: Primary Source
Dr. John Hoskins Griscom (1809–74), a Quaker physician, founded the New York Academy of Medicine and pioneered the field of public health. His advocacy for sanitation, medical care, and adequate housing led to the great reforms of the Progressive Era after the Civil War.

Charles Dickens on the Five Points
Resource Type: Primary Source
The famed British writer Charles Dickens published his account of his 1842 visit to America, where he found evidence of England's superior class system in the squalor of New York's Five Points slum.

Sunshine and Shadow in New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
Sunshine and Shadow in New York, a mid-nineteenth-century publication, depicts New York City as two polar societies, one affluent and vibrant, and one poor and diseased.

How the Other Half Lives
Resource Type: Primary Source
Newspaper reporters, such as Jacob Riis (1849–1914), played an instrumental role in exposing the destitution and misery of New York's immigrant and working-class neighborhoods.

Tenement Slum
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jacob Riis, a reporter for the New York Sun newspaper, helped raise awareness about the conditions of the urban poor with his 1890 publication, How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York. This book would later influence Theodore Roosevelt.

Twenty Years at Hull House
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jane Addams, a leading social worker during the Progressive Era, founded the Hull House settlement for immigrants in Chicago in 1889. She wrote about her experiences there in Twenty Years at Hull House, published in 1910.

Margaret Sanger on Working Women
Resource Type: Primary Source
Margaret Sanger became nationally famous for organizing a birth-control movement. In this 1915 issue of the International Socialist Review, Sanger discusses working women.

Brooklyn Bridge
Resource Type: Primary Source
An important American modernist painter, John Marin (1870–1953) established his reputation with his work in watercolors. Although known for his landscape paintings, Marin expresses his interest in urban life in Brooklyn Bridge, which associates the excitement of New York with the famous bridge. The bridge connects Manhattan to Brooklyn and had been completed about thirty years earlier, in 1883.

Sumner on Social Darwinism
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Graham Sumner was an American social scientist influenced by Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin. Sumner applied Darwin's evolutionary theory to human society.

Petition for Reservoir Rights
Resource Type: Primary Source
San Francisco petitioned Congress for use of the Hetch Hetchy area of Yosemite National Park for reservoir rights. The petition was presented at the congressional hearing before the Committee on the Public Lands of the House of Representatives.

Fire
Resource Type: Primary Source
Since 1873, New York has had fireboxes on its streets.

Disasters
Resource Type: Primary Source
Wreck of the steamboat General Slocum (June 15, 1904).

Cities Deal with Water
Resource Type: Primary Source
Fairmount waterworks, Philadelphia (1874).

The History of the City of New York—E-Seminar 4, Urban Crisis: Disease, Crime, and Space
Resource Type: E-Seminar
In this fourth in a series of eight e-seminars, Professor Kenneth T. Jackson, examines public space in New York and focuses on the creation of Central Park. He also discusses the creation of the Metropolitan Board of Health, the implementation of health and sanitary regulations as a response to outbreaks of cholera, and the founding of the New York City Police Department.

The Draft Riots
Resource Type: Primary Source
Recruiting station for the Union Army, in City Hall Park (1864).

Why the Farmers Revolted
Resource Type: Primary Source
This article appeared in the magazine Forum in 1893, during a time when many American farmers were facing great distress.

Letter of a Woman Homesteader
Resource Type: Primary Source
Elinore Pruitt Stewart was one of many female homesteaders. In 1914, her letters were published in Letters of a Woman Homesteader. One letter, dated October 14, 1911, is reproduced below.

Roosevelt on Physical Health
Resource Type: Primary Source
The future president, Theodore Roosevelt, discusses the importance of physical health and strength for American males.

Why the Farmers Revolted
Resource Type: Primary Source
This article appeared in the magazine Forum in 1893, during a time when many American farmers were facing great distress.

Railroad Ad
Resource Type: Primary Source
This Northern Pacific Railroad advertisement appeared in a 1900 issue of Harper's Weekly. The advertisement promotes travel to Yellowstone National Park.

The Frontier in American History
Resource Type: Primary Source
After the 1890 census, the historian Frederick Jackson Turner wrote an essay on the role of the American frontier in shaping the American character.

Reclamation Act / Newlands Act of 1902
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Reclamation Act / Newlands Act of 1902 allowed the government to undertake irrigation projects to establish farms for relief of urban congestion. The bill was named for its author, Francis Griffith Newlands, Democratic Representative from Nevada. The Reclamation Service, created in July 1902, was established a month later and eventually became the Bureau of Reclamation.

Petition for Reservoir Rights
Resource Type: Primary Source
San Francisco petitioned Congress for use of the Hetch Hetchy area of Yosemite National Park for reservoir rights. The petition was presented at the congressional hearing before the Committee on the Public Lands of the House of Representatives.


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