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NCHS-9

Postwar United States (1945-1970s)


1.  The economic boom and social transformation of postwar United States

A.  The student understands the extent and impact of economic changes in the postwar period

B.  The student understands how the social changes of the postwar period affected various Americans

C.  The student understands how postwar science augmented the nation's economic strength, transformed daily life, and influenced the world economy

2.  How the Cold War and conflicts in Korea and Vietnam influenced domestic and international politics

A.  The student understands the international origins and domestic consequences of the Cold War

B.  The student understands United States foreign policy in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America

C.  The student understands the foreign and domestic consequences of U.S. involvement in Vietnam

3.  Domestic policies after World War II

A.  The student understands the political debates of the post-World War II era

B.  The student understands the "New Frontier" and the "Great Society"

4.  The struggle for racial and gender equality and for the extension of civil liberties

A.  The student understands the "Second Reconstruction" and its advancement of civil rights

B.  The student understands the women's movement for civil rights and equal opportunities

C.  The student understands the Warren Court's role in addressing civil liberties and equal rights


Resources:

The Vietnam War
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
A Bigger Story
A Bigger Story: The First Indochina War
Two Vietnams
Two Vietnams: The Churchill of Southeast Asia
Two Vietnams: Kennedy and Diem
No Choice
No Choice: Ironic Consequences
Why America Failed
Why America Failed: Strategies
Alternatives
Alternatives: A Two-Sided Stalemate
Alternatives: A War Unlike Others
Conclusion
Key Figures

Cultural Revolutions
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Revolution: Beyond the Marches

Colonial City: Revolutionary Battleground
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant interactive tools:
Washington and Ho Chi Minh
Washington and Ho Chi Minh

Urban Crisis: Fire and Water
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant transcripts:
No Water Meters

Urban Crisis: Disease, Crime, and Space
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant texts:
Never Again

Relevant transcripts:
Creating Safety

New Deal Order
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
The American Century Idea
Legacies: Mimicking Wartime Expansion
Legacies: Abundance
The New Framework
The New Framework: The GI Bill
The New Framework: The Full Employment Bill
The New Framework: The Fair Deal
The New Framework: Postwar Domestic Order
The Cold War: the Soviet Union
The Cold War: The Long Telegram
The Cold War: Containment
The Cold War: Defending Our Own Sphere
Containment Policy Tested
Containment Policy Tested: Aid as Stategy
Containment Policy Tested: The Marshall Plan
Allure of the New
Key Figures
Timeline

Relevant texts:
Ask Alan Brinkley: Why did the role of government expand so rapidly and dramatically after World War II?
Ask Alan Brinkley: What role did the idea of an "American Century" play in the nation's response to World War II?
The full text of ”The American Century” by Henry R. Luce
Text of George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram," February 22, 1946.
Ask Alan Brinkley: When did the Cold War actually begin?
Interview with General George C. Marshall. 30 October 1952

Relevant transcripts:
The ideas of British economist John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946) became extremely popular in postwar America.
The consumer economy was made possible by growing abundance.
An ambitious agenda, most of the Postwar Program never passed.
Optimism: In 1945, some diplomats still believed that Stalin was reasonable.
Pessimism: Other policymakers compared Stalin to Hitler.
According to Kennan, the Soviets were out to destroy American society.
Kennan seemed to be ceding Eastern Europe to the Soviets.
Kennan on where to resist communism: Not everywhere.
The Cold War gave the Marshall Plan a new urgency.
A period of exuberant innovation in art and of faith in scientific progress.

The Politics of Anticommunism
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Impact of the Cold War
Impact of the Cold War: The Iron Triangle
The Red Scare
The Red Scare: A Totalitarian Nightmare
The Red Scare: Klaus Fuchs
The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
The Red Scare: Joseph McCarthy
Interpretations of the Red Scare
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Domestic Subversion
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Alienated Travelers
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Institutional Stakes
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Why So Widespread?
Final Analysis
Key Figures

Relevant transcripts:
Professor Brinkley introduces this e-seminar.
A focus on national security and intelligence.
The "domestic subversion" argument.
The "paranoid style" argument.
Why were people so afraid?
McCarthyism could have been challenged much earlier, but many elites were paralyzed by fear.

Relevant interactive tools:
Chronology
Chronology

The Stable Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Abundance
Abundance: The American Middle Class
Abundance: Defining the Middle Class
Television
Television: Messages and Sponsors
Television: Sitcoms
Television: Two-Edged Sword
The Suburbs
The Suburbs: Homogenity
The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
National Politics

Relevant transcripts:
The illusion of redistribution.
What happened to the middle class?
Outside the middle class.

The Subversive Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Disillusionment
Other Americans
Other Americans: Pressured to Conform
Other Americans: The Beats
Environmental Critique
Environmental Critique: Pollution and Health
Feminism
Feminism: Two Different Spheres
Feminism: A More Complex Problem
Poverty
Poverty: Structural Poverty
Poverty: Why the Attention?
Segregation
Segregation: Brown v. Board of Education
Conclusion

Relevant transcripts:
Not a people united.
Increasing disenchantment.
Antecedents of the counterculture.
The feminine mystique.
Whose fault was it?
Racial disparities.
Montgomery

Kennedy, Johnson, and the Great Society
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
Presidents and Liberalism
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy: The Assassination
John F. Kennedy: A New Generation
John F. Kennedy: The Grand Objective
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson: Kennedy and Johnson's Legacy
The Great Society
The Great Society: A Social Crusade
The Great Society: The War on Poverty
Conclusion

Relevant texts:
President Johnson's Inaugural Address (1965).

Relevant transcripts:
Eisenhower

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
Greensboro
Southern Whites
Drawing National Attention
Drawing National Attention: Silent No Longer
March on Washington
Selma
Selma: Malcolm X Appears
A National Problem
A National Problem: Still Unequal
Militancy
Militancy: Black Power
Militancy: The Black Panthers
What Happened in White America?
Timeline

Relevant texts:
Special Message to the Congress: The American Promise

Relevant transcripts:
Rising expectations.

Relevant interactive tools:
Broadside distributed at Columbia University by the Black Panther Party (1970).
Broadside distributed at Columbia University by the Black Panther Party (1970).

The War on Poverty
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint

Physicist's Testimony to Congress
Resource Type: Primary Source
This excerpt is from an exchange between Dr. Morrison, a professor of physics at Cornell University, and Mr. Morris, a member of the U.S. Senate Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act. An article that Dr. Morrison had published in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, February 1949, was the subject of this exchange.

Student Information Given to Federal Investigators
Resource Type: Primary Source
This article in the Columbia University student newspaper reports that the dean of students provided federal investigators with information about students who had attended the university.

The Organization Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Whyte discusses the institutionalized and bureaucratized aspects of life in America.

DuBois on American Democracy
Resource Type: Primary Source
DuBois discusses American democracy and why he is frustrated with party politics in the United States.

The Affluent Society
Resource Type: Primary Source
Galbraith's classic study of 1950s America discusses the irony of the existence of significant poverty in affluent America.

Coming of Age in Mississippi
Resource Type: Primary Source
Moody reveals her experience of wandering into the white section of the local theater; she realizes, after the incident, that "whiteness" provided her friends with a different life.

Eisenhower at a Football Game
Resource Type: Primary Source
Eisenhower served as president of Columbia University; here he is seen waving a Columbia University pennant in one hand and an Army pennant in the other at a college football game.

President Johnson's Commencement Address
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech in 1965 to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to delineate the tenets of his Great Society program.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The civil-rights movement shifted from nonviolent civil disobedience to "black power." The rich selection of primary sources will help students explore the philosophies of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, the differences between the African American experience in the North and in the South, the role of government and political institutions, as well as global movements against imperialism.

Brown v. Board of Education: The Results of Segregation
Resource Type: Primary Source
This landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 declared the segregation of black and white children in American public schools to be unconstitutional.

To Fulfill These Rights
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to outline the Great Society program.

Power and Racism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Stokely Carmichael (1941–88), born in Trinidad, invented the rallying cry of "Black Power" in Mississippi, in 1966, as a leader of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). He left America in 1969 for Africa, where he helped found the All-African People's Revolutionary Party.

Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bobby Seale (1936– ) and Huey Newton (1942–89), cofounders of the Marxist Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in 1966, advocated self-determination and self-rule for black Americans in contrast to the nonviolent, integrationist strategy of Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–68) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Black Panther Party Platform
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bobby Seale (1936– ) and Huey Newton (1942–89), cofounders of the Marxist Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in 1966, advocated self-determination and self-rule for black Americans in contrast to the nonviolent, integrationist strategy of Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–68) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Levitt On Communism and Home Ownership
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its mass-produced housing. William Levitt is quoted as saying the following.

Schlesinger on Freedom
Resource Type: Primary Source
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., a noted American historian, wrote this influential book to argue that a rejuvenated faith in democratic ideals and the continuation of New Deal liberalism would safeguard America from the twin threats of totalitarianism and fascism.

Joseph McCarthy's Speech
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, an unremarkable member of Congress from Wisconsin, burst onto the national political scene in 1950, after announcing to a West Virginia audience that he held in his hand a list of 205 American Communists who worked in the U.S. State Department.

Convergence
Resource Type: Primary Source
Renowned for his technique of spontaneous "splatter" or "action" painting, Jackson Pollock (1912–56) emerged as the leading American artist of the abstract expressionist movement.

I Am Waiting
Resource Type: Primary Source
One of the beat poets, Ferlinghetti captures an alternative perspective on life in postwar America in this poem.

Levittown, New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its hundreds of acres of mass-produced housing.

The Affluent Soceiety: Public vs. Private Sectors
Resource Type: Primary Source
John Kenneth Galbraith, a prominent Harvard economist, outlined in this article the necessary balance that should exist between the private and public sectors of the American economy.

Woolworth Counter Strike
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1960, students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, a historically black institution, defied segregation by sitting at the luncheon counter of the F.W. Woolworth store in Greensboro.

The Other America
Resource Type: Primary Source
With this book, writer and social activist Michael Harrington helped launch the New Left movement of the 1960s and its concerns about American poverty and social injustice.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

The Affluent Society
Resource Type: Primary Source
Galbraith's classic study of 1950s America discusses the irony of the existence of significant poverty in affluent America.

Eisenhower and the Politics of the 1950s
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This selection of primary sources gives students an opportunity to examine different layers of dissent during the Eisenhower presidency. Although President Eisenhower enjoyed great public support, his administration was challenged by problems at home and abroad.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The civil-rights movement shifted from nonviolent civil disobedience to "black power." The rich selection of primary sources will help students explore the philosophies of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, the differences between the African American experience in the North and in the South, the role of government and political institutions, as well as global movements against imperialism.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Levitt On Communism and Home Ownership
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its mass-produced housing. William Levitt is quoted as saying the following.

Convergence
Resource Type: Primary Source
Renowned for his technique of spontaneous "splatter" or "action" painting, Jackson Pollock (1912–56) emerged as the leading American artist of the abstract expressionist movement.

I Am Waiting
Resource Type: Primary Source
One of the beat poets, Ferlinghetti captures an alternative perspective on life in postwar America in this poem.

Levittown, New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its hundreds of acres of mass-produced housing.

The Affluent Soceiety: Public vs. Private Sectors
Resource Type: Primary Source
John Kenneth Galbraith, a prominent Harvard economist, outlined in this article the necessary balance that should exist between the private and public sectors of the American economy.

Woolworth Counter Strike
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1960, students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, a historically black institution, defied segregation by sitting at the luncheon counter of the F.W. Woolworth store in Greensboro.

The Other America
Resource Type: Primary Source
With this book, writer and social activist Michael Harrington helped launch the New Left movement of the 1960s and its concerns about American poverty and social injustice.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

Economic Prosperity in the 1950s in the United States
Resource Type: Teaching Activity
The purpose of this classroom activity on economic prosperity in the 1950s is to analyze the forces that have paradoxically led to a cultural homogeneity, on the one hand, and to a contesting of cultural conformity, on the other. The role of television is closely examined in terms of how it helped to shape public perceptions—sometimes reinforcing a sense of unity, at other times sowing the seeds of discord.

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Television: Sitcoms
Resource Type: Primary Source
Audrey Meadows and Jackie Gleason in a promotional portrait for The Honeymooners.

Television: Two-Edged Sword
Resource Type: Primary Source
Lucille Ball and her husband, Desi Arnaz, costars of I Love Lucy.

Television: Two-Edged Sword
Resource Type: Primary Source
Edward R. Murrow and Senator Joseph McCarthy on the news show See It Now, during the McCarthy-Army hearings (July 8, 1954).

The Suburbs: Homogenity
Resource Type: Primary Source
Aerial view of Levittown, N.Y.

Sixties Radicalism and Conservatism
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Dissent and social protest characterize the 1960s. Enduring images of the decade recall its civil-rights marches, antiwar protests, and rallies of members of various social grouips—women, farmworkers, American Indians—calling for greater justice. The documents within the DBQ represent a variety of voices, illustrating the tensions between countercultural movements of the 1960s and conservative reactions against them. This DBQ contextualizes the debates of the 1960s within a longer-term analysis of the divisions between left and right in the United States since the beginning of the Cold War.

Legacies: The American Welfare State
Resource Type: Primary Source
Classic poster of the Works Progress Administration, or WPA, one of the many New Deal projects of FDR's administration.

The New Framework
Resource Type: Primary Source
Still from In Our Hands, Part 2: What We Have (1950).

The Organization Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Whyte discusses the institutionalized and bureaucratized aspects of life in America.

The Affluent Society
Resource Type: Primary Source
Galbraith's classic study of 1950s America discusses the irony of the existence of significant poverty in affluent America.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Levitt On Communism and Home Ownership
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its mass-produced housing. William Levitt is quoted as saying the following.

Convergence
Resource Type: Primary Source
Renowned for his technique of spontaneous "splatter" or "action" painting, Jackson Pollock (1912–56) emerged as the leading American artist of the abstract expressionist movement.

I Am Waiting
Resource Type: Primary Source
One of the beat poets, Ferlinghetti captures an alternative perspective on life in postwar America in this poem.

Levittown, New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its hundreds of acres of mass-produced housing.

The Affluent Soceiety: Public vs. Private Sectors
Resource Type: Primary Source
John Kenneth Galbraith, a prominent Harvard economist, outlined in this article the necessary balance that should exist between the private and public sectors of the American economy.

Woolworth Counter Strike
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1960, students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, a historically black institution, defied segregation by sitting at the luncheon counter of the F.W. Woolworth store in Greensboro.

The Other America
Resource Type: Primary Source
With this book, writer and social activist Michael Harrington helped launch the New Left movement of the 1960s and its concerns about American poverty and social injustice.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

Economic Prosperity in the 1950s in the United States
Resource Type: Teaching Activity
The purpose of this classroom activity on economic prosperity in the 1950s is to analyze the forces that have paradoxically led to a cultural homogeneity, on the one hand, and to a contesting of cultural conformity, on the other. The role of television is closely examined in terms of how it helped to shape public perceptions—sometimes reinforcing a sense of unity, at other times sowing the seeds of discord.

The Avant-Garde Artists of the 1950s
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this creative simulation, students role-play avant-garde artists of the 1950s to discuss important issues of the times (politics, the affluent society, race relations, women, etc.) from an artistic and intellectual perspective.

Abundance
Resource Type: Primary Source
Poster from the U.S. Housing Authority (1940s).

Abundance
Resource Type: Primary Source
New York City housing project (c. 1950).

Abundance: The American Middle Class
Resource Type: Primary Source
Scene of typical middle-American life.

The Suburbs: Homogenity
Resource Type: Primary Source
Ad for Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Ad describes the rush by veterans to buy homes in Levittown, N.Y.

Democracy: Limitations and Possibilities
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
During the 1960s, a series of widely disparate protest movements emerged in the United States. While the antiwar movement directed against U.S. intervention in the Vietnam War appeared to be the most salient, many others as well expressed discontent with American government and society. In this question, students are asked to look at a variety of groups—including women, African Americans, and ethnic minorities—many of whose members felt marginalized or underrepresented, became politically active, and helped to establish social movements dedicated to the advancement of their communities. Students can use these documents to determine the degree to which different groups sought to redefine American democracy and make it more inclusive.

Sixties Radicalism and Conservatism
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Dissent and social protest characterize the 1960s. Enduring images of the decade recall its civil-rights marches, antiwar protests, and rallies of members of various social grouips—women, farmworkers, American Indians—calling for greater justice. The documents within the DBQ represent a variety of voices, illustrating the tensions between countercultural movements of the 1960s and conservative reactions against them. This DBQ contextualizes the debates of the 1960s within a longer-term analysis of the divisions between left and right in the United States since the beginning of the Cold War.

Legacies: The American Welfare State
Resource Type: Primary Source
Classic poster of the Works Progress Administration, or WPA, one of the many New Deal projects of FDR's administration.

The New Framework: The Full Employment Bill
Resource Type: Primary Source
Still from In Our Hands, Part 2: What We Have (1950).

Student Information Given to Federal Investigators
Resource Type: Primary Source
This article in the Columbia University student newspaper reports that the dean of students provided federal investigators with information about students who had attended the university.

The Organization Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Whyte discusses the institutionalized and bureaucratized aspects of life in America.

DuBois on American Democracy
Resource Type: Primary Source
DuBois discusses American democracy and why he is frustrated with party politics in the United States.

The Affluent Society
Resource Type: Primary Source
Galbraith's classic study of 1950s America discusses the irony of the existence of significant poverty in affluent America.

Coming of Age in Mississippi
Resource Type: Primary Source
Moody reveals her experience of wandering into the white section of the local theater; she realizes, after the incident, that "whiteness" provided her friends with a different life.

Eisenhower at a Football Game
Resource Type: Primary Source
Eisenhower served as president of Columbia University; here he is seen waving a Columbia University pennant in one hand and an Army pennant in the other at a college football game.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Levitt On Communism and Home Ownership
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its mass-produced housing. William Levitt is quoted as saying the following.

Convergence
Resource Type: Primary Source
Renowned for his technique of spontaneous "splatter" or "action" painting, Jackson Pollock (1912–56) emerged as the leading American artist of the abstract expressionist movement.

I Am Waiting
Resource Type: Primary Source
One of the beat poets, Ferlinghetti captures an alternative perspective on life in postwar America in this poem.

Levittown, New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its hundreds of acres of mass-produced housing.

The Affluent Soceiety: Public vs. Private Sectors
Resource Type: Primary Source
John Kenneth Galbraith, a prominent Harvard economist, outlined in this article the necessary balance that should exist between the private and public sectors of the American economy.

Woolworth Counter Strike
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1960, students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, a historically black institution, defied segregation by sitting at the luncheon counter of the F.W. Woolworth store in Greensboro.

The Other America
Resource Type: Primary Source
With this book, writer and social activist Michael Harrington helped launch the New Left movement of the 1960s and its concerns about American poverty and social injustice.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

The Avant-Garde Artists of the 1950s
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this creative simulation, students role-play avant-garde artists of the 1950s to discuss important issues of the times (politics, the affluent society, race relations, women, etc.) from an artistic and intellectual perspective.

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Customers wait in line to buy houses in Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Families move into Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Welcome wagon offers gifts from local merchants to new arrivals in Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cape Cod–style houses in Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Dance rehearsal in Levittown, N.Y. (1950).

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Square dancers celebrate Levittown's 10th anniversary.

Other Americans
Resource Type: Primary Source
A corporate board of directors (1961).

Other Americans: Pressured to Conform
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of The Organization Man by William H. Whyte, Jr. (1956).

Other Americans: The Beats
Resource Type: Primary Source
Allen Ginsberg, in a photograph taken at his enrollment in Columbia University (1943).

Other Americans: The Beats
Resource Type: Primary Source
While a student at Columbia University, Allen Ginsberg took courses with Lionel Trilling, the great literary scholar.

Other Americans: The Beats
Resource Type: Primary Source
Peter Orlovsky and Gregory Corso, fellow Beats, listen to Allen Ginsberg read poetry at Columbia University (1959).

Other Americans: The Beats
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover from a 1959 edition of Howl and Other Poems by Allen Ginsberg. This collection was first published by City Lights Books in 1956.

Other Americans: The Beats
Resource Type: Primary Source
Allen Ginsberg at home (1966).

Environmental Critique: Pollution and Health
Resource Type: Primary Source
Early ban-the-bomb protest outside the United Nations.

Poverty
Resource Type: Primary Source
Michael Harrington, author.

Poverty
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of a 1963 paperback edition of The Other America: Poverty in the United States by Michael Harrington. This book was first published in 1962.

Poverty: Structural Poverty
Resource Type: Primary Source
Boy amid demolished slums, New York City (1961).

Poverty: Structural Poverty
Resource Type: Primary Source
Man looks out over slums in Detroit.

Poverty: Structural Poverty
Resource Type: Primary Source
Slums in Appalachia.

Poverty: Structural Poverty
Resource Type: Primary Source
Slums, Omaha, Nebraska.

Poverty: Structural Poverty
Resource Type: Primary Source
Girl in a slum area of Washington, D.C.

Poverty: Why the Attention?
Resource Type: Primary Source
Teenage mother attends class with her baby (1971).

The Organization Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Whyte discusses the institutionalized and bureaucratized aspects of life in America.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Levitt On Communism and Home Ownership
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its mass-produced housing. William Levitt is quoted as saying the following.

Convergence
Resource Type: Primary Source
Renowned for his technique of spontaneous "splatter" or "action" painting, Jackson Pollock (1912–56) emerged as the leading American artist of the abstract expressionist movement.

Levittown, New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its hundreds of acres of mass-produced housing.

The Affluent Soceiety: Public vs. Private Sectors
Resource Type: Primary Source
John Kenneth Galbraith, a prominent Harvard economist, outlined in this article the necessary balance that should exist between the private and public sectors of the American economy.

The Other America
Resource Type: Primary Source
With this book, writer and social activist Michael Harrington helped launch the New Left movement of the 1960s and its concerns about American poverty and social injustice.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

Allure of the New
Resource Type: Primary Source
Archibald MacLeish, Librarian of Congress

Allure of the New
Resource Type: Primary Source
Nobel Prize winners and physicists Ernest Orlando Lawrence and Arthur Holly Compton, Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development Vannevar Bush, President of Harvard University James Bryant Conant, President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Karl T. Compton, and investment banker Alfred Loomis gather for a meeting at Loomis' private laboratory.

Environmental Critique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Rachel Carson, author and environmentalist, at her typewriter (1952).

Environmental Critique: DDT
Resource Type: Primary Source
Farmer sprays DDT pesticide on trees (1948).

Environmental Critique: DDT
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (1962), which exposed data on the harmful effects of DDT and other chemical pesticides.

Segregation: Brown v. Board of Education
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Supreme Court's decree calling for desegregation "with all deliberate speed," issued a year after the court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.

Student Information Given to Federal Investigators
Resource Type: Primary Source
This article in the Columbia University student newspaper reports that the dean of students provided federal investigators with information about students who had attended the university.

Eisenhower and the Politics of the 1950s
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This selection of primary sources gives students an opportunity to examine different layers of dissent during the Eisenhower presidency. Although President Eisenhower enjoyed great public support, his administration was challenged by problems at home and abroad.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Schlesinger on Freedom
Resource Type: Primary Source
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., a noted American historian, wrote this influential book to argue that a rejuvenated faith in democratic ideals and the continuation of New Deal liberalism would safeguard America from the twin threats of totalitarianism and fascism.

Joseph McCarthy's Speech
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, an unremarkable member of Congress from Wisconsin, burst onto the national political scene in 1950, after announcing to a West Virginia audience that he held in his hand a list of 205 American Communists who worked in the U.S. State Department.

The Cold War: the Soviet Union
Resource Type: Primary Source
Dean Acheson in 1945.

Text of George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram," February 22, 1946.
Resource Type: Primary Source

Student Information Given to Federal Investigators
Resource Type: Primary Source
This article in the Columbia University student newspaper reports that the dean of students provided federal investigators with information about students who had attended the university.

The Organization Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Whyte discusses the institutionalized and bureaucratized aspects of life in America.

The Cold War: Domestic and Foreign Concerns
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
These primary sources allow students to carefully examine the foreign and domestic factors that contributed to the Cold War, including the Yalta Conference, communist containment and the domino principle, domestic politics and McCarthyism, American and Soviet expansionism, and American and Soviet paranoia.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Schlesinger on Freedom
Resource Type: Primary Source
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., a noted American historian, wrote this influential book to argue that a rejuvenated faith in democratic ideals and the continuation of New Deal liberalism would safeguard America from the twin threats of totalitarianism and fascism.

Joseph McCarthy's Speech
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, an unremarkable member of Congress from Wisconsin, burst onto the national political scene in 1950, after announcing to a West Virginia audience that he held in his hand a list of 205 American Communists who worked in the U.S. State Department.

Historians Debate: Who Is Responsible for the Cold War?
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
This simulation involves a fictitious conference held in the year 2002, in which three groups of Cold War historians—orthodox, revisionist, and post-revisionist—debate the origins of the Cold War. Who is to blame, the United States, the Soviet Union, or both?

The Avant-Garde Artists of the 1950s
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this creative simulation, students role-play avant-garde artists of the 1950s to discuss important issues of the times (politics, the affluent society, race relations, women, etc.) from an artistic and intellectual perspective.

The Cold War: Containment
Resource Type: Primary Source

Containment Policy Tested
Resource Type: Primary Source

Containment Policy Tested: The Marshall Plan
Resource Type: Primary Source
Photo of Marshall (left) at Harvard commencement, June 5, 1947, with James Bryant Conant, president of Harvard, and General Omar Bradley.

Interview with General George C. Marshall. 30 October 1952
Resource Type: Primary Source

The Cold War: The Soviet Union
Resource Type: Primary Source
Charles Bohlen (1904–74), (with hand on chin, standing behind President Harry Truman) was a diplomat and Soviet expert in the State Department. Bohlen was outspoken in his warnings about the Soviet Union's intentions after World War II. He argued that the Soviet regime was paranoid and despotic, like Nazi Germany, and could not be trusted. His grim assessment of the Soviet Union was not widely accepted at first, but eventually it came to prevail. It led to the policy of containment, an underpinning of U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War.

The Cold War: The Soviet Union
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Bullitt (1891–1967), a U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union in the 1930s, was a leading representative of the pessimistic view of the Soviet regime after World War II. He thought the Soviet Union, led by Stalin, was morally equivalent to Nazi Germany and must be resisted. Not widely shared at first, this opinion eventually found acceptance throughout the U.S. government and helped shape the policy of containment during the Cold War.

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

The Cold War: The Soviet Union
Resource Type: Primary Source
Josef Stalin (1879–1953), leader of the Soviet Union for more than thirty years, molded the characteristic features of the Soviet regime and to a large degree shaped East-West relations after World War II. An important ally of the United States during World War II, he was nevertheless a despotic ruler. After the war, the West, increasingly alarmed by his tyranny and brutality, which prompted comparisons to Hitler's rule in Nazi Germany, was alienated on the diplomatic front by conflicts with Stalin's over the extent of Soviet influence. Specifically, Stalin clashed with President Truman over the division of Germany into the democratic western sector and the communist eastern sector. Struggles also emerged in Turkey and Greece. The increasing hostility between Stalin and the West developed into the Cold War.

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Impact of the Cold War: The Iron Triangle
Resource Type: Primary Source
Liberals were concerned that domestic social problems would damage America's influence abroad.

The Red Scare
Resource Type: Primary Source
U.S. Army poster from the mid-1950s.

The Red Scare: A Totalitarian Nightmare
Resource Type: Primary Source
Two other members of the legendary "Hollywood Ten" John Howard Lawson (left) and Dalton Trumbo enter van to be taken to DC jail after they were sentenced to one year in jail and fined $1,000 each for contempt of court.

The Red Scare: A Totalitarian Nightmare
Resource Type: Primary Source
Seven members of the "Hollywood Ten" arrive at U.S. Federal Court in Washington, D.C., on June 22, 1950, to face charges of contempt. From left to right: Samuel Ornitz, Ring Lardner Jr., Albert Maltz, Alvah Bessie, Lester Cole, Herbert Biberman, and Edward Dmytryk.

The Red Scare: Klaus Fuchs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Photograph of British atomic scientist Klaus Fuchs that was used as an exhibit during the Rosenberg trial.

The Red Scare: Klaus Fuchs
Resource Type: Primary Source

The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Police photos of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.

The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Sketch used as evidence in the Rosenberg trial.

The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg leaving the U.S. Courthouse in New York City after being found guilty (1951).

The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Ethel Rosenberg arriving at Sing Sing Prison on April 11, 1951, following her death sentence.

Interpretations of the Red Scare
Resource Type: Primary Source
U.S. Army poster from the mid-1950s.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Domestic Subversion
Resource Type: Primary Source
Poster for I Was a Communist for the FBI, a fictional film about an FBI agent who infiltrates the Communist Party (1951).

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Alienated Travelers
Resource Type: Primary Source
U.S. Army poster from the mid-1950s.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Alienated Travelers
Resource Type: Primary Source
McCarthy supporters at a rally in Washington, D.C., in December 1954.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 1.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 3.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 4.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 5.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 6.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 7. Truman's reply was probably never sent.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Institutional Stakes
Resource Type: Primary Source
The House Un-American Activities Committee.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Institutional Stakes
Resource Type: Primary Source
Edgar Hoover, longtime director of the FBI and a passionate anticommunist (c. 1953).

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Why So Widespread?
Resource Type: Primary Source
McCarthy depicted as a threat to the press. Cartoon by Daniel Robert Fitzpatrick (1953).

Final Analysis
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph McCarthy during the McCarthy-Army hearings (1954), which led to his political downfall.

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

The Red Scare: Alger Hiss
Resource Type: Primary Source
Richard M. Nixon (1913–94), 37th president of the United States, gained national prominence during the Red Scare of the early 1950s. Elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 after a campaign in which he accused his Democratic opponent of being soft on communism, Nixon went on to become a leader of Congressional investigations into communist activities in the United States. In particular, Nixon won national attention for his role in the investigation that the House Un-American Activities Committee conducted of Alger Hiss, an American who was alleged to have spied for the Soviets.

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Television: Two-Edged Sword
Resource Type: Primary Source
Edward R. Murrow and Senator Joseph McCarthy on the news show See It Now during the McCarthy-Army hearings (July 8, 1954).

The Cold War: Domestic and Foreign Concerns
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
These primary sources allow students to carefully examine the foreign and domestic factors that contributed to the Cold War, including the Yalta Conference, communist containment and the domino principle, domestic politics and McCarthyism, American and Soviet expansionism, and American and Soviet paranoia.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

The Avant-Garde Artists of the 1950s
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this creative simulation, students role-play avant-garde artists of the 1950s to discuss important issues of the times (politics, the affluent society, race relations, women, etc.) from an artistic and intellectual perspective.

The United States in Vietnam
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation, a special congressional committee—the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Vietnam—will examine changes in U.S. foreign policy toward Vietnam from 1954 through 1975. The committee will investigate why the United States entered the war but failed to prevent the communist takeover of the Republic of South Vietnam. Students will impersonate historical characters who are called to testify before this fictitious Senate subcommittee. The historical characters will explain, from their perspective, why the United States entered the war, why it escalated its military involvement there, and then, despite the escalation, why it suffered defeat. Do the senators and journalists reporting on the investigation blame any one U.S. president? Or do they blame rather a wide range of circumstances both domestic and international? This simulation will expose students to a variety of conflicting interpretations of the U.S. role in Vietnam.

Primary Source Analysis: Nixon and Vietnam
Resource Type: Teaching Activity

Primary Source Analysis: Nixon and Vietnam
Resource Type: Teaching Activity

Democracy: Limitations and Possibilities
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
During the 1960s, a series of widely disparate protest movements emerged in the United States. While the antiwar movement directed against U.S. intervention in the Vietnam War appeared to be the most salient, many others as well expressed discontent with American government and society. In this question, students are asked to look at a variety of groups—including women, African Americans, and ethnic minorities—many of whose members felt marginalized or underrepresented, became politically active, and helped to establish social movements dedicated to the advancement of their communities. Students can use these documents to determine the degree to which different groups sought to redefine American democracy and make it more inclusive.

Sixties Radicalism and Conservatism
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Dissent and social protest characterize the 1960s. Enduring images of the decade recall its civil-rights marches, antiwar protests, and rallies of members of various social grouips—women, farmworkers, American Indians—calling for greater justice. The documents within the DBQ represent a variety of voices, illustrating the tensions between countercultural movements of the 1960s and conservative reactions against them. This DBQ contextualizes the debates of the 1960s within a longer-term analysis of the divisions between left and right in the United States since the beginning of the Cold War.

The Vietnam War: The Home Front
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
In his e-seminar Kennedy, Johnson and the Great Society, Alan Brinkley offers a measured assessment of the Great Society and, in particular, of the War on Poverty. He rejects the radical contention that the War on Poverty was a political response to social turmoil and mass pressure. He observes that, on the contrary, the Great Society was an elite initiative crafted by liberal policymakers who were confident about the future. But Professor Brinkley disputes the conservative contention that the War on Poverty was an unmitigated failure. He notes that poverty declined significantly between 1960 and 1970, particularly among the elderly, and asserts that, while the expansion of the American economy during that period contributed to that trend, Head Start, food stamps, Medicare, and other government programs also contributed much.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

What Happened in White America?
Resource Type: Primary Source
Students at Columbia University protest the war in Vietnam (1967).

Review of Invisible Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
New York intellectual Irving Howe affirms Ralph Ellison's book Invisible Man as a "Negro novel."

President Johnson's Commencement Address
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech in 1965 to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to delineate the tenets of his Great Society program.

Homogenized Society and Conformity
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This carefully crafted selection of primary sources will allow students to weigh the multiplicity of factors that influenced American culture in the 1950s, such as the Cold War, government policies, legislation, corporations, and television. Students can focus on the extent to which consensus and conformity dominated relations among or within various social groups.

To Fulfill These Rights
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to outline the Great Society program.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

Schlesinger on Freedom
Resource Type: Primary Source
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., a noted American historian, wrote this influential book to argue that a rejuvenated faith in democratic ideals and the continuation of New Deal liberalism would safeguard America from the twin threats of totalitarianism and fascism.

Joseph McCarthy's Speech
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, an unremarkable member of Congress from Wisconsin, burst onto the national political scene in 1950, after announcing to a West Virginia audience that he held in his hand a list of 205 American Communists who worked in the U.S. State Department.

The Other America
Resource Type: Primary Source
With this book, writer and social activist Michael Harrington helped launch the New Left movement of the 1960s and its concerns about American poverty and social injustice.

Middle-Class America and Its Discontents
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
This simulation asks students to place themselves in a Greenwich Village coffeehouse on the eve of the 1960s. Replicating a broad spectrum of American society, from conservatives to counterculture critics, students will understand how the fifties represented an era of consensus that paradoxically carried the seeds of protest that would fuel the rebellion of the sixties.

Sixties Radicalism and Conservatism
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Dissent and social protest characterize the 1960s. Enduring images of the decade recall its civil-rights marches, antiwar protests, and rallies of members of various social grouips—women, farmworkers, American Indians—calling for greater justice. The documents within the DBQ represent a variety of voices, illustrating the tensions between countercultural movements of the 1960s and conservative reactions against them. This DBQ contextualizes the debates of the 1960s within a longer-term analysis of the divisions between left and right in the United States since the beginning of the Cold War.

Review of Invisible Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
New York intellectual Irving Howe affirms Ralph Ellison's book Invisible Man as a "Negro novel."

Student Information Given to Federal Investigators
Resource Type: Primary Source
This article in the Columbia University student newspaper reports that the dean of students provided federal investigators with information about students who had attended the university.

The Organization Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Whyte discusses the institutionalized and bureaucratized aspects of life in America.

DuBois on American Democracy
Resource Type: Primary Source
DuBois discusses American democracy and why he is frustrated with party politics in the United States.

President Johnson's Commencement Address
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech in 1965 to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to delineate the tenets of his Great Society program.

To Fulfill These Rights
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to outline the Great Society program.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

Schlesinger on Freedom
Resource Type: Primary Source
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., a noted American historian, wrote this influential book to argue that a rejuvenated faith in democratic ideals and the continuation of New Deal liberalism would safeguard America from the twin threats of totalitarianism and fascism.

Joseph McCarthy's Speech
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, an unremarkable member of Congress from Wisconsin, burst onto the national political scene in 1950, after announcing to a West Virginia audience that he held in his hand a list of 205 American Communists who worked in the U.S. State Department.

The Avant-Garde Artists of the 1950s
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this creative simulation, students role-play avant-garde artists of the 1950s to discuss important issues of the times (politics, the affluent society, race relations, women, etc.) from an artistic and intellectual perspective.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Alienated Travelers
Resource Type: Primary Source
McCarthy supporters at a rally in Washington, D.C., in December 1954.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Harry Truman holding up an early edition of the Chicago Tribune. The banner headline erroneously credited his opponent, Thomas Dewey, with victory in the 1948 presidential election.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph McCarthy's cause was received favorably by a number of Democrats, including Robert F. Kennedy (center) and Senator Henry Jackson of Washington (right).

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 1.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 3.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 4.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 5.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 6.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 7. Truman's reply was probably never sent.

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

National Politics: Ike's Popularity
Resource Type: Primary Source
Dwight Eisenhower campaigns for president (1952).

National Politics: Looking to Business
Resource Type: Primary Source
President-elect Eisenhower and Vice President-elect Nixon, with cabinet nominees (January 1953).

National Politics: Looking to Business
Resource Type: Primary Source
President-elect Eisenhower, Viscount Bernard L. Montgomery, and Don G. Mitchell, president of Sylvania corporation (1958).

Conclusion
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Eisenhower, with his wife Mamie, during inauguration ceremonies for his second term (January 1957).

Introduction
Resource Type: Primary Source
President John F. Kennedy, shortly after taking office, meets with former President Dwight Eisenhower (April 1961).

Presidents and Liberalism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of the first edition of The American Presidency by Clinton Rossiter (1956).

Presidents and Liberalism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of the first edition of Presidential Power: The Politics of Leadership by Richard Neustadt (1960.)

Presidents and Liberalism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Dwight Eisenhower, former U.S. president and former Columbia University president, visits Columbia's campus (1964).

John F. Kennedy
Resource Type: Primary Source
President and Mrs. Kennedy entertain guests at the White House. Left to right: Frederic March, actor; Mary Walsh (Mrs. Ernest) Hemingway; President and Mrs. Kennedy; and Katherine (Mrs. George C.) Marshall. The first couple hosted many leading cultural figures.

Lyndon B. Johnson: Kennedy and Johnson's Legacy
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Johnson, in a characteristic pose, with his Supreme Court nominee, Abe Fortas (1965).

President Johnson's Commencement Address
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech in 1965 to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to delineate the tenets of his Great Society program.

To Fulfill These Rights
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to outline the Great Society program.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

The Other America
Resource Type: Primary Source
With this book, writer and social activist Michael Harrington helped launch the New Left movement of the 1960s and its concerns about American poverty and social injustice.

The Great Society
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Johnson visits a resident of Appalachia during his poverty tour (1964).

The Great Society
Resource Type: Primary Source
Head Start class in the Bronx, New York City (1969).

The Great Society: A Social Crusade
Resource Type: Primary Source

The Great Society: A Social Crusade
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Johnson's Inaugural Address (1965).

The Great Society: The War on Poverty
Resource Type: Primary Source
Poster for the Job Corps program of the Office of Economic Opportunity (c. 1970).

Debating the Legacy of the 1960s
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation of a television talk show, students are required to assume the roles of present-day talk-show moderators as well as of individuals active during the 1960s. The students are to debate, in character, the legacy of the 1960s—the impact it has had on American politics and society up to the present day.

Primary Source Analysis: Protest Music
Resource Type: Teaching Activity

Primary Source Analysis: The Sixties
Resource Type: Teaching Activity

Review of Invisible Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
New York intellectual Irving Howe affirms Ralph Ellison's book Invisible Man as a "Negro novel."

DuBois on American Democracy
Resource Type: Primary Source
DuBois discusses American democracy and why he is frustrated with party politics in the United States.

Coming of Age in Mississippi
Resource Type: Primary Source
Moody reveals her experience of wandering into the white section of the local theater; she realizes, after the incident, that "whiteness" provided her friends with a different life.

President Johnson's Commencement Address
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech in 1965 to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to delineate the tenets of his Great Society program.

Homogenized Society and Conformity
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This carefully crafted selection of primary sources will allow students to weigh the multiplicity of factors that influenced American culture in the 1950s, such as the Cold War, government policies, legislation, corporations, and television. Students can focus on the extent to which consensus and conformity dominated relations among or within various social groups.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The civil-rights movement shifted from nonviolent civil disobedience to "black power." The rich selection of primary sources will help students explore the philosophies of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, the differences between the African American experience in the North and in the South, the role of government and political institutions, as well as global movements against imperialism.

Brown v. Board of Education: The Results of Segregation
Resource Type: Primary Source
This landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 declared the segregation of black and white children in American public schools to be unconstitutional.

To Fulfill These Rights
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to outline the Great Society program.

Power and Racism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Stokely Carmichael (1941–88), born in Trinidad, invented the rallying cry of "Black Power" in Mississippi, in 1966, as a leader of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). He left America in 1969 for Africa, where he helped found the All-African People's Revolutionary Party.

Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bobby Seale (1936– ) and Huey Newton (1942–89), cofounders of the Marxist Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in 1966, advocated self-determination and self-rule for black Americans in contrast to the nonviolent, integrationist strategy of Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–68) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Black Panther Party Platform
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bobby Seale (1936– ) and Huey Newton (1942–89), cofounders of the Marxist Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in 1966, advocated self-determination and self-rule for black Americans in contrast to the nonviolent, integrationist strategy of Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–68) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Woolworth Counter Strike
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1960, students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, a historically black institution, defied segregation by sitting at the luncheon counter of the F.W. Woolworth store in Greensboro.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

Middle-Class America and Its Discontents
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
This simulation asks students to place themselves in a Greenwich Village coffeehouse on the eve of the 1960s. Replicating a broad spectrum of American society, from conservatives to counterculture critics, students will understand how the fifties represented an era of consensus that paradoxically carried the seeds of protest that would fuel the rebellion of the sixties.

Segregation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Sympathy demonstration held in New York City in support of desegregation in the South (1960).

Feminism: Two Different Spheres
Resource Type: Primary Source
Alice Paul, feminist activist (1920).

Segregation: Boycott
Resource Type: Primary Source
African American passengers sit at the front of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, following a federal-court order desegregating buses.

Conclusion
Resource Type: Primary Source
Demonstrators protest the Vietnam War outside a Democratic Party reception attended by President Kennedy (1963).

Introduction
Resource Type: Primary Source
The March on Washington (August 28, 1963). Participants included, front row, left to right: Whitney M. Young Jr., executive director of the National Urban League; Roy Wilkins, executive secretary of the NAACP; and A. Philip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.

Greensboro
Resource Type: Primary Source
Sit-in at a Woolworth store's lunch counter, Greensboro, North Carolina (February 1960).

Southern Whites
Resource Type: Primary Source
Police officers used attack dogs against civil-rights demonstrators in Birmingham (May 3, 1963).

Southern Whites
Resource Type: Primary Source
"Bull" Connor, Birmingham sheriff (1963).

Southern Whites
Resource Type: Primary Source
Interior of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church after it was bombed, Birmingham (September 1963).

Selma
Resource Type: Primary Source
Police swing clubs to break up voting-rights demonstration in Selma, Alabama (March 7, 1965).

Selma
Resource Type: Primary Source
Lyndon Baines Johnson

Selma: Malcolm X Appears
Resource Type: Primary Source
Malcolm X addresses civil-rights protesters in Selma (February 4, 1965).

A National Problem
Resource Type: Primary Source
Mounted police disperse demonstrators during a conflict over racial integration of schools, Boston (1974).

Militancy
Resource Type: Primary Source
Broadside distributed at Columbia University by the Black Panther Party (1970).

Militancy: Black Power
Resource Type: Primary Source
Stokely Carmichael addresses a crowd (1966).

Militancy: Black Power
Resource Type: Primary Source
Malcolm X visits Barnard College (1965).

Militancy: The Black Panthers
Resource Type: Primary Source
Black Panther Party members at the California state capitol argue with a state policeman after he disarms them, Sacramento (May 2, 1967).

The Legacy of the Counterculture
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint

The New Left
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint

Democracy: Limitations and Possibilities
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
During the 1960s, a series of widely disparate protest movements emerged in the United States. While the antiwar movement directed against U.S. intervention in the Vietnam War appeared to be the most salient, many others as well expressed discontent with American government and society. In this question, students are asked to look at a variety of groups—including women, African Americans, and ethnic minorities—many of whose members felt marginalized or underrepresented, became politically active, and helped to establish social movements dedicated to the advancement of their communities. Students can use these documents to determine the degree to which different groups sought to redefine American democracy and make it more inclusive.

Sixties Radicalism and Conservatism
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Dissent and social protest characterize the 1960s. Enduring images of the decade recall its civil-rights marches, antiwar protests, and rallies of members of various social grouips—women, farmworkers, American Indians—calling for greater justice. The documents within the DBQ represent a variety of voices, illustrating the tensions between countercultural movements of the 1960s and conservative reactions against them. This DBQ contextualizes the debates of the 1960s within a longer-term analysis of the divisions between left and right in the United States since the beginning of the Cold War.

Coming of Age in Mississippi
Resource Type: Primary Source
Moody reveals her experience of wandering into the white section of the local theater; she realizes, after the incident, that "whiteness" provided her friends with a different life.

President Johnson's Commencement Address
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech in 1965 to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to delineate the tenets of his Great Society program.

Modern Republicanism and the New Right
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The development of a Republican majority is the focus of this DBQ, which explores the larger issues of modern republicanism in postwar America and the emergence of the new right. Electoral maps provide in-depth analyses of presidential elections since the 1960s.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The civil-rights movement shifted from nonviolent civil disobedience to "black power." The rich selection of primary sources will help students explore the philosophies of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, the differences between the African American experience in the North and in the South, the role of government and political institutions, as well as global movements against imperialism.

Brown v. Board of Education: The Results of Segregation
Resource Type: Primary Source
This landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 declared the segregation of black and white children in American public schools to be unconstitutional.

To Fulfill These Rights
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to outline the Great Society program.

Power and Racism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Stokely Carmichael (1941–88), born in Trinidad, invented the rallying cry of "Black Power" in Mississippi, in 1966, as a leader of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). He left America in 1969 for Africa, where he helped found the All-African People's Revolutionary Party.

Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bobby Seale (1936– ) and Huey Newton (1942–89), cofounders of the Marxist Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in 1966, advocated self-determination and self-rule for black Americans in contrast to the nonviolent, integrationist strategy of Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–68) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Black Panther Party Platform
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bobby Seale (1936– ) and Huey Newton (1942–89), cofounders of the Marxist Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in 1966, advocated self-determination and self-rule for black Americans in contrast to the nonviolent, integrationist strategy of Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–68) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Woolworth Counter Strike
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1960, students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, a historically black institution, defied segregation by sitting at the luncheon counter of the F.W. Woolworth store in Greensboro.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

Civil-Rights Debate: Where Do We Go from Here?
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation students are asked to represent a variety of figures from American society in the 1960s. The goal is to understand the complex nature of race relations and power politics in the United States—especially how individuals and events at home and abroad influenced the civil-rights movement.

Special Message to the Congress: The American Promise
Resource Type: Primary Source
Text of President Johnson's speech introducing the voting-rights bill to a Joint Session of Congress (March 15, 1965).

The Legacy of the Counterculture
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint

The New Left
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint

Sixties Radicalism and Conservatism
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Dissent and social protest characterize the 1960s. Enduring images of the decade recall its civil-rights marches, antiwar protests, and rallies of members of various social grouips—women, farmworkers, American Indians—calling for greater justice. The documents within the DBQ represent a variety of voices, illustrating the tensions between countercultural movements of the 1960s and conservative reactions against them. This DBQ contextualizes the debates of the 1960s within a longer-term analysis of the divisions between left and right in the United States since the beginning of the Cold War.

Modern Republicanism and the New Right
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The development of a Republican majority is the focus of this DBQ, which explores the larger issues of modern republicanism in postwar America and the emergence of the new right. Electoral maps provide in-depth analyses of presidential elections since the 1960s.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

Feminism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of a 1964 paperback edition of The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan. This book was first published in 1963.

Feminism: Two Different Spheres
Resource Type: Primary Source
Eleanor Roosevelt shakes hands with a resident of a dormitory for black women war workers (1943).

Democracy: Limitations and Possibilities
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
During the 1960s, a series of widely disparate protest movements emerged in the United States. While the antiwar movement directed against U.S. intervention in the Vietnam War appeared to be the most salient, many others as well expressed discontent with American government and society. In this question, students are asked to look at a variety of groups—including women, African Americans, and ethnic minorities—many of whose members felt marginalized or underrepresented, became politically active, and helped to establish social movements dedicated to the advancement of their communities. Students can use these documents to determine the degree to which different groups sought to redefine American democracy and make it more inclusive.

Modern Republicanism and the New Right
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The development of a Republican majority is the focus of this DBQ, which explores the larger issues of modern republicanism in postwar America and the emergence of the new right. Electoral maps provide in-depth analyses of presidential elections since the 1960s.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The civil-rights movement shifted from nonviolent civil disobedience to "black power." The rich selection of primary sources will help students explore the philosophies of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, the differences between the African American experience in the North and in the South, the role of government and political institutions, as well as global movements against imperialism.

Segregation: Brown v. Board of Education
Resource Type: Primary Source
Linda Brown in class at the segregated school she attended before the Supreme Court decided her case and outlawed school segregation.


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