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1.  Three Worlds Meet (Beginnings to 1620)

1.  Comparative characteristics of societies in the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa that increasingly interacted after 1450

A.  The student understands the patterns of change in indigenous societies in the Americas up to the Columbian voyages

B.  The student understands changes in Western European societies in the age of exploration

C.  The student understands developments in Western African societies in the period of early contact with Europeans

D.  The student understands the differences and similarities among Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans who converged in the western hemisphere after 1492

2.  How early European exploration and colonization resulted in cultural and ecological interactions among previously unconnected peoples

A.  The student understands the stages of European oceanic and overland exploration, amid international rivalries, from the 9th to 17th centuries

B.  The student understands the Spanish and Portuguese conquest of the Americas

2.  Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)

1.  Why the Americas attracted Europeans, why they brought enslaved Africans to their colonies, and how Europeans struggled for control of North America and the Caribbean

A.  The student understands how diverse immigrants affected the formation of European colonies

B.  The student understands the European struggle for control of North America

2.  How political, religious, and social institutions emerged in the English colonies

A.  The student understands the roots of representative government and how political rights were defined

B.  The student understands religious diversity in the colonies and how ideas about religious freedom evolved

C.  The student understands social and cultural change in British America

3.  Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s)

1.  The causes of the American Revolution, the ideas and interests involved in forging the revolutionary movement, and the reasons for the American victory

A.  The student understands the causes of the American Revolution

B.  The student understands the principles articulated in the Declaration of Independence

C.  The student understands the factors affecting the course of the war and contributing to the American victory

2.  The impact of the American Revolution on politics, economy, and society

A.  The student understands revolutionary government-making at national and state levels

B.  The student understands the economic issues arising out of the Revolution

3.  The institutions and practices of government created during the Revolution and how they were revised between 1787 and 1815 to create the foundation of the American political system based on the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights

A.  The student understands the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the United States Constitution and the new government it established

B.  The student understands the guarantees of the Bill of Rights and continuing significance

C.  The student understands the development of the Supreme Court's power and its significance from 1789 to 1820

D.  The student understands the development of the first American party system

4.  Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)

1.  United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans

A.  The student understands the international background and consequences of the Louisiana Purchase, the War of 1812, and the Monroe Doctrine

B.  The student understands federal and state Indian policy and the strategies for survival forged by Native Americans

C.  The student understands the ideology of Manifest Destiny, the nation's expansion to the Northwest, and the Mexican-American War

2.  How the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed the lives of Americans and led toward regional tensions

A.  The student understands how the factory system and the transportation and market revolutions shaped regional patterns of economic development

B.  The student understands the first era of American urbanization

C.  The student understands how antebellum immigration changed American society

D.  The student understands the rapid growth of "the peculiar institution" after 1800 and the varied experiences of African Americans under slavery

E.  The student understands the settlement of the West

3.  The extension, restriction, and reorganization of political democracy after 1800

A.  The student understands the changing character of American political life in "the age of the common man"

B.  The student understands how the debates over slavery influenced politics and sectionalism

4.  The sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period

A.  The student understands the abolitionist movement

B.  The student understands how Americans strived to reform society and create a distinct culture

5.  Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)

1.  The causes of the Civil War

A.  The student understands how the North and South differed and how politics and ideologies led to the Civil War

2.  The course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people

A.  The student understands how the resources of the Union and Confederacy affected the course of the war

B.  The student understands the social experience of the war on the battlefield and homefront

3.  How various reconstruction plans succeeded or failed

A.  The student understands the political controversy over Reconstruction

B.  The student understands the Reconstruction programs to transform social relations in the South

C.  The student understands the successes and failures of Reconstruction in the South, North, and West

6.  The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900)

1.  How the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed the American people

A.  The student understands the connections among industrialization, the advent of the modern corporation, and material well-being

B.  The student understands the rapid growth of cities and how urban life changed

C.  The student understands how agriculture, mining, and ranching were transformed

D.  The student understands the effects of rapid industrialization on the environment and the emergence of the first conservation movement

2.  Massive immigration after 1870 and how new social patterns, conflicts, and ideas of national unity developed amid growing cultural diversity

A.  The student understands the sources and experiences of the new immigrants

B.  The student understands "scientific racism", race relations, and the struggle for equal rights

C.  The student understands how new cultural movements at different social levels affected American life

3.  The rise of the American labor movement and how political issues reflected social and economic changes

A.  The student understands how the "second industrial revolution" changed the nature and conditions of work

B.  The student understands the rise of national labor unions and the role of state and federal governments in labor conflicts

C.  The student understands how Americans grappled with social, economic, and political issues

4.  Federal Indian policy and United States foreign policy after the Civil War

A.  The student understands various perspectives on federal Indian policy, westward expansion, and the resulting struggles

B.  The student understands the roots and development of American expansionism and the causes and outcomes of the Spanish-American War

7.  The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930)

1.  How Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption

A.  The student understands the origin of the Progressives and the coalitions they formed to deal with issues at the local and state levels

B.  The student understands Progressivism at the national level

C.  The student understands the limitations of Progressivism and the alternatives offered by various groups

2.  The changing role of the United States in world affairs through World War I

A.  The student understands how the American role in the world changed in the early 20th century

B.  The student understands the causes of World War I and why the United States intervened

C.  The student understands the impact at home and abroad of the United States involvement in World War I

3.  How the United States changed from the end of World War I to the eve of the Great Depression

A.  The student understands social tensions and their consequences in the postwar era

B.  The student understands how a modern capitalist economy emerged in the 1920s

C.  The student understands how new cultural movements reflected and changed American society

D.  The student understands politics and international affairs in the 1920s

8.  The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945)

1.  The causes of the Great Depression and how it affected American society

A.  The student understands the causes of the crash of 1929 and the Great Depression

B.  The student understands how American life changed during the 1930s

2.  How the New Deal addressed the Great Depression, transformed American federalism, and initiated the welfare state

A.  The student understands the New Deal and the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt

B.  The student understands the impact of the New Deal on workers and the labor movement

C.  The student understands opposition to the New Deal, the alternative programs of its detractors, and the legacy of the New Deal

3.  The causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs

A.  The student understands the international background of World War II

B.  The student understands World War II and how the Allies prevailed

C.  The student understands the effects of World War II at home

9.  Postwar United States (1945-1970s)

1.  The economic boom and social transformation of postwar United States

A.  The student understands the extent and impact of economic changes in the postwar period

B.  The student understands how the social changes of the postwar period affected various Americans

C.  The student understands how postwar science augmented the nation's economic strength, transformed daily life, and influenced the world economy

2.  How the Cold War and conflicts in Korea and Vietnam influenced domestic and international politics

A.  The student understands the international origins and domestic consequences of the Cold War

B.  The student understands United States foreign policy in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America

C.  The student understands the foreign and domestic consequences of U.S. involvement in Vietnam

3.  Domestic policies after World War II

A.  The student understands the political debates of the post-World War II era

B.  The student understands the "New Frontier" and the "Great Society"

4.  The struggle for racial and gender equality and for the extension of civil liberties

A.  The student understands the "Second Reconstruction" and its advancement of civil rights

B.  The student understands the women's movement for civil rights and equal opportunities

C.  The student understands the Warren Court's role in addressing civil liberties and equal rights

10.  Contemporary United States (1968-present)

1.  Recent developments in foreign policy and domestic politics

A.  The student understands domestic politics from Nixon to Carter

B.  The student understands domestic politics in contemporary society

C.  The student understands major foreign policy initiatives

2.  Economic, social, and cultural developments in contemporary United States

A.  The student understands economic patterns since 1968

B.  The student understands the new immigration and demographic shifts

C.  The student understands changing religious diversity and its impact on American institutions and values

D.  The student understands contemporary American culture

E.  The student understands how a democratic polity debates social issues and mediates between individual or group rights and the common good



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