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NCSS-6

Power, Authority and Governance


Resources:

The Vietnam War
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
A Bigger Story
A Bigger Story: The First Indochina War
Two Vietnams
Two Vietnams: The Churchill of Southeast Asia
Two Vietnams: Kennedy and Diem
No Choice
No Choice: Ironic Consequences
Why America Failed
Why America Failed: Strategies
Alternatives
Alternatives: A Two-Sided Stalemate
Alternatives: A War Unlike Others
Conclusion

Cultural Revolutions
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Revolution
Revolution: Beyond the Marches
The New Left: Berkeley
The New Left: The Goal of Participation

History as Destiny: The Case of New York City
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant transcripts:
American cities are powerful

Colonial City: Revolutionary Battleground
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
British New York

Relevant transcripts:
Heterogenous But Unhappy In 1703
Empire City and State

Relevant interactive tools:
Becoming an English City
Becoming an English City

Urban Crisis: Fire and Water
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant texts:
The World Trade Center and the Future of the City

Relevant transcripts:
Growth Causes Problems
The Urban Response
Solving the Fire Problem
A Place to Have a Good Time
Moving to Get Rid of Volunteer Fire Companies
Volunteers Oppose Professionalization
A Bank and a Private Water Company

Urban Crisis: Disease, Crime, and Space
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Crime and Public Order
The Draft Riots

Relevant texts:
Preventing Cholera
One-Tenth the Death
Enforcing Morality
Never Again

Relevant transcripts:
Uniforms
Anticipating Trouble
Summer of 1863
Response to the Riots

New Deal Order
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Legacies: New Deal Legacy

Relevant texts:
Ask Alan Brinkley: Why did the role of government expand so rapidly and dramatically after World War II?

Relevant transcripts:
Section from Franklin Roosevelt's second inaugural speech, from January 20, 1937, unedited. Poor sound quality is due to rain drops on the microphone.

The Politics of Anticommunism
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Impact of the Cold War
The Red Scare
The Red Scare: A Totalitarian Nightmare
The Red Scare: Klaus Fuchs
The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
The Red Scare: Joseph McCarthy
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Domestic Subversion
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Alienated Travelers
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Institutional Stakes
Interpretations of the Red Scare: Why So Widespread?
Final Analysis
Key Figures

Relevant transcripts:
The "domestic subversion" argument.
Why were people so afraid?
McCarthyism could have been challenged much earlier, but many elites were paralyzed by fear.

The Stable Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Television: Two-Edged Sword

The Subversive Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Feminism: Two Different Spheres
Poverty: Why the Attention?
Segregation: Brown v. Board of Education

Relevant transcripts:
Racial disparities.

Kennedy, Johnson, and the Great Society
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
Presidents and Liberalism
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy: The Assassination
John F. Kennedy: A New Generation
John F. Kennedy: Charm and Grace
John F. Kennedy: The Grand Objective
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson: Kennedy and Johnson's Legacy
The Great Society
The Great Society: A Social Crusade
The Great Society: The War on Poverty
Conclusion

Relevant texts:
President Kennedy's Inaugural Address (1961).
President Johnson's Inaugural Address (1965).

Relevant transcripts:
Eisenhower
A national obsession.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Southern Whites
Drawing National Attention
Drawing National Attention: Silent No Longer
March on Washington
Selma
A National Problem
A National Problem: Still Unequal

Relevant texts:
Special Message to the Congress: The American Promise

The Old South
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
Plantation Values: The Paternalist Vision
Plantation Values: The Defense of Slavery
Plantation Values: A System of Subordination
Slave Life and Culture: Varieties of Slave Labor
Slave Life and Culture: Field Workers' Conditions
Slave Life and Culture: Order and Discipline
Resistance to Slavery: Running Away
Conclusion
Who's Who

The Origins of Slavery in the New World
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Laws and Statutes: Undefined Legal Status
Laws and Statues: Codifying Slavery
Laws and Statues: The Virginia Slave Code
Systems of Slavery: Diversity

The Struggle for Freedom
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
Meanings of Freedom: Political Freedom
The Constitution: Slavery Defended
The Turning Point: Two Watershed Events
Timeline
Who's who

Abolitionism and Antislavery
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
The Expansion Issue: The compromise of 1850
The Expansion Issue: The Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Expansion Issue: Political Polarization
The Road To War: The Dred Scott Decision
The Road To War: The Lincoln-Douglas Debates.
The Road To War: The 1860 Election
Conclusion

The United States in Vietnam
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation, a special congressional committee—the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Vietnam—will examine changes in U.S. foreign policy toward Vietnam from 1954 through 1975. The committee will investigate why the United States entered the war but failed to prevent the communist takeover of the Republic of South Vietnam. Students will impersonate historical characters who are called to testify before this fictitious Senate subcommittee. The historical characters will explain, from their perspective, why the United States entered the war, why it escalated its military involvement there, and then, despite the escalation, why it suffered defeat. Do the senators and journalists reporting on the investigation blame any one U.S. president? Or do they blame rather a wide range of circumstances both domestic and international? This simulation will expose students to a variety of conflicting interpretations of the U.S. role in Vietnam.

Debating the Legacy of the 1960s
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation of a television talk show, students are required to assume the roles of present-day talk-show moderators as well as of individuals active during the 1960s. The students are to debate, in character, the legacy of the 1960s—the impact it has had on American politics and society up to the present day.

The Legacy of the Counterculture
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint

The New Left
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint

The U.S. Entry into Vietnam
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint

The War on Poverty
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint

Primary Source Analysis: Protest Music
Resource Type: Teaching Activity

Primary Source Analysis: The Sixties
Resource Type: Teaching Activity

Primary Source Analysis: Nixon and Vietnam
Resource Type: Teaching Activity

Democracy: Limitations and Possibilities
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
During the 1960s, a series of widely disparate protest movements emerged in the United States. While the antiwar movement directed against U.S. intervention in the Vietnam War appeared to be the most salient, many others as well expressed discontent with American government and society. In this question, students are asked to look at a variety of groups—including women, African Americans, and ethnic minorities—many of whose members felt marginalized or underrepresented, became politically active, and helped to establish social movements dedicated to the advancement of their communities. Students can use these documents to determine the degree to which different groups sought to redefine American democracy and make it more inclusive.

Sixties Radicalism and Conservatism
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Dissent and social protest characterize the 1960s. Enduring images of the decade recall its civil-rights marches, antiwar protests, and rallies of members of various social grouips—women, farmworkers, American Indians—calling for greater justice. The documents within the DBQ represent a variety of voices, illustrating the tensions between countercultural movements of the 1960s and conservative reactions against them. This DBQ contextualizes the debates of the 1960s within a longer-term analysis of the divisions between left and right in the United States since the beginning of the Cold War.

Vietnam and President Nixon
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This DBQ focuses on Richard Nixon's conduct of the Vietnam War. The documents are drawn from the period between 1968, when Richard Nixon successfully campaigned for the U.S. presidency, and 1973, when the Paris Peace Accords, which formalized the end of U.S. involvement in the war, were signed by the United States, South Vietnam, and North Vietnam. Students will investigate the extent to which the Nixon administration was able to achieve the "honorable peace" he promised the American public.

The Vietnam War: The Home Front
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
In his e-seminar Kennedy, Johnson and the Great Society, Alan Brinkley offers a measured assessment of the Great Society and, in particular, of the War on Poverty. He rejects the radical contention that the War on Poverty was a political response to social turmoil and mass pressure. He observes that, on the contrary, the Great Society was an elite initiative crafted by liberal policymakers who were confident about the future. But Professor Brinkley disputes the conservative contention that the War on Poverty was an unmitigated failure. He notes that poverty declined significantly between 1960 and 1970, particularly among the elderly, and asserts that, while the expansion of the American economy during that period contributed to that trend, Head Start, food stamps, Medicare, and other government programs also contributed much.

Review of Invisible Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
New York intellectual Irving Howe affirms Ralph Ellison's book Invisible Man as a "Negro novel."

Physicist's Testimony to Congress
Resource Type: Primary Source
This excerpt is from an exchange between Dr. Morrison, a professor of physics at Cornell University, and Mr. Morris, a member of the U.S. Senate Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act. An article that Dr. Morrison had published in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, February 1949, was the subject of this exchange.

Student Information Given to Federal Investigators
Resource Type: Primary Source
This article in the Columbia University student newspaper reports that the dean of students provided federal investigators with information about students who had attended the university.

The Organization Man
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Whyte discusses the institutionalized and bureaucratized aspects of life in America.

DuBois on American Democracy
Resource Type: Primary Source
DuBois discusses American democracy and why he is frustrated with party politics in the United States.

Coming of Age in Mississippi
Resource Type: Primary Source
Moody reveals her experience of wandering into the white section of the local theater; she realizes, after the incident, that "whiteness" provided her friends with a different life.

Michigan Anti-communist Law
Resource Type: Primary Source
The state of Michigan passed this legislation in 1952.

Montgomery, Alabama, Code on Segregation
Resource Type: Primary Source
This piece of municipal legislation mandates the separation of races on city bus lines.

Brown v. Board of Education: Denial of Equal Protection
Resource Type: Primary Source
This is an excerpt of the 1954 Supreme Court decision rendered in Brown v. Board of Education, which declares separate facilities for blacks and whites as unequal.

City Problems: Poverty and Slums
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Exploring the cholera epidemic in mid-nineteenth century New York City, this selection of primary sources provides a case-study of immigration, urbanization (e.g., slums such as the Five Points), and social and moral reform that can be applied to the study of any city in the industrialized world.

Petition to Have the Five Points Opened
Resource Type: Primary Source
Merchants owning property along the periphery of Five Points petitioned the municipal government in 1829 to demolish the heart of the slum by widening and extending Anthony and Cross Streets.

How the Other Half Lives
Resource Type: Primary Source
Newspaper reporters, such as Jacob Riis (1849–1914), played an instrumental role in exposing the destitution and misery of New York's immigrant and working-class neighborhoods.

New Deal Liberalism and Postwar Economic Growth
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The primary sources in this DBQ help students explore the legacy of New Deal liberalism as American society is transformed during the 1940s and 50s. Economic, political, and social issues interact to simultaneously and paradoxically enhance and undermine government intervention in American society.

The Cold War: Domestic and Foreign Concerns
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
These primary sources allow students to carefully examine the foreign and domestic factors that contributed to the Cold War, including the Yalta Conference, communist containment and the domino principle, domestic politics and McCarthyism, American and Soviet expansionism, and American and Soviet paranoia.

President Johnson's Commencement Address
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech in 1965 to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to delineate the tenets of his Great Society program.

Modern Republicanism and the New Right
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The development of a Republican majority is the focus of this DBQ, which explores the larger issues of modern republicanism in postwar America and the emergence of the new right. Electoral maps provide in-depth analyses of presidential elections since the 1960s.

Eisenhower and the Politics of the 1950s
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This selection of primary sources gives students an opportunity to examine different layers of dissent during the Eisenhower presidency. Although President Eisenhower enjoyed great public support, his administration was challenged by problems at home and abroad.

Homogenized Society and Conformity
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This carefully crafted selection of primary sources will allow students to weigh the multiplicity of factors that influenced American culture in the 1950s, such as the Cold War, government policies, legislation, corporations, and television. Students can focus on the extent to which consensus and conformity dominated relations among or within various social groups.

The Civil-Rights Movement
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The civil-rights movement shifted from nonviolent civil disobedience to "black power." The rich selection of primary sources will help students explore the philosophies of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, the differences between the African American experience in the North and in the South, the role of government and political institutions, as well as global movements against imperialism.

From Protest to Politics
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bayard Rustin (1910–87), one of Martin Luther King's closest advisors, was a key organizer of the 1963 March on Washington.

To Fulfill These Rights
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908–73) made this landmark speech to students at Howard University in Washington, D.C., a historically black institution, to outline the Great Society program.

Power and Racism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Stokely Carmichael (1941–88), born in Trinidad, invented the rallying cry of "Black Power" in Mississippi, in 1966, as a leader of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). He left America in 1969 for Africa, where he helped found the All-African People's Revolutionary Party.

Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bobby Seale (1936– ) and Huey Newton (1942–89), cofounders of the Marxist Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in 1966, advocated self-determination and self-rule for black Americans in contrast to the nonviolent, integrationist strategy of Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–68) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Black Panther Party Platform
Resource Type: Primary Source
Bobby Seale (1936– ) and Huey Newton (1942–89), cofounders of the Marxist Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in 1966, advocated self-determination and self-rule for black Americans in contrast to the nonviolent, integrationist strategy of Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–68) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Beyond Vietnam
Resource Type: Primary Source
This speech was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church in New York City.

Joseph McCarthy's Speech
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, an unremarkable member of Congress from Wisconsin, burst onto the national political scene in 1950, after announcing to a West Virginia audience that he held in his hand a list of 205 American Communists who worked in the U.S. State Department.

Woolworth Counter Strike
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1960, students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, a historically black institution, defied segregation by sitting at the luncheon counter of the F.W. Woolworth store in Greensboro.

The Other America
Resource Type: Primary Source
With this book, writer and social activist Michael Harrington helped launch the New Left movement of the 1960s and its concerns about American poverty and social injustice.

Lincoln on Striking Shoemakers
Resource Type: Primary Source
During the presidential campaign in 1860, Abraham Lincoln traveled to New England and gave the following speech related to the famous strike of shoemakers in Lynn, Massachusetts. The newspaper that reprinted the speech indicated the audience's reaction in the bracketed information, provided in the excerpt below.

The Civil War and the Expansion of Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This DBQ focuses on the decade of crisis, the 1850s, during which the question of the expansion of slavery tore the country apart. The documents selected include the classic evidence that can be used to prove that the expansion of slavery was the most important cause of the Civil War, 1861–65.

Calhoun on the Compromise of 1850
Resource Type: Primary Source
John C. Calhoun became the South's most powerful advocate as senator from South Carolina for most of the period from 1832 to 1850.

Republican Party Platform of 1856
Resource Type: Primary Source
While the Democrats endorsed popular sovereignty to decide the issue of slavery in the Territories, the Republicans took the stand put forth here.

Bleeding Kansas
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the summer of 1856, advocates of Free States flocked to Kansas in anticipation of the popular sovereignty vote.

A House Divided
Resource Type: Primary Source
Abraham Lincoln accepts the Republican Party's nomination for U.S. senator from Illinois. Lincoln ran against Stephen A. Douglas, the proponent of popular sovereignty.

National Democratic Party Platform of 1860
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1860, the Democratic Party split along sectional lines, leaving the Southern Democrats as the dominant party of the South. In the 1860 presidential election, the Southern Democrats won every state of the Deep South, the first states to secede.

Crittenden's Proposed Amendment
Resource Type: Primary Source
Abraham Lincoln has been elected President and the threat of secession hangs over the Union. What is Crittenden's plan?

Response to the Crittenden Amendment
Resource Type: Primary Source
This editorial responds to Crittenden's proposal to amend the Constitution.

Mississippi's Declaration of Secession
Resource Type: Primary Source
The first state to secede was South Carolina, doing so on December 20, 1860. Before the end of February, all the states of the Deep South (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas) had seceded.

Harriet Tubman's Letter to Lincoln
Resource Type: Primary Source
After escaping from slavery in 1849, Harriet Tubman became one of the most prominent abolitionists and a driving force behind the various secret escape routes for slaves. In this quotation from a letter by another great abolitionist, Lydia Maria Child, Tubman seeks to influence President Abraham Lincoln.

Lincoln's Letter to Horace Greeley
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Abraham Lincoln responds on August 22, 1862, to the publisher Horace Greeley, who three days earlier criticized the government for not making emancipation a key war aim. What Greeley did not know and what Lincoln in his letter does not divulge is that a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation was on Lincoln's desk as he wrote this letter to Greeley.

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Read the Emancipation Proclamation to determine whom exactly it set free. Was the Proclamation issued because the war was not going well for the North or because African Americans were demanding that the destruction of slavery become the key aim of the war?

The Thirteenth Amendment
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is one of the legacies of the Civil War.

The American Revolution and Its Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
In exploring the radical and conservative aspects of the American Revolution, these documents introduce students to the principles of equality and republicanism and the arguments for independence from Great Britain (via the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine's Common Sense).

Freedom Petition of Massachusetts Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
Four slaves submitted this letter to the provincial legislature in Massachusetts on April 20, 1773.

First Continental Congress Declaration and Resolves
Resource Type: Primary Source
Representatives of twelve of the thirteen original colonies met in Philadelphia in September and October of 1774 to develop a common response to the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts.

Common Sense
Resource Type: Primary Source
Thomas Paine (1737–1809) was born in England and emigrated to the colonies in 1774. In Common Sense, Paine articulates his argument for independence.

Abigail Adams to John Adams
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1776, Abigail Adams wrote a letter to her husband, John Adams, who was then attending the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

Manumission of Slaves in North Carolina
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the wake of the Revolution, many Southern states liberalized their provisions for manumission. By 1790, slaveholders could manumit their slaves throughout the South, except in North Carolina.

The Declaration of Independence
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress asserted American independence from Britain and justified its decision to do so by citing a series of alleged violations of American rights.

Memoirs of Captain Alexander Graydon
Resource Type: Primary Source
Alexander Graydon (1752–1818), a captain in the Continental army, recounted the problems he encountered as he recruited men to fight the war, and he commented on the meaning of the Revolution.

A Whig Freeholder on Emancipation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Pennsylvania, like many of the Northern states, established gradual emancipation.

Rewards for Revolutionary War Veterans
Resource Type: Primary Source
North Carolina, like other states, rewarded veterans of the American Revolution with the granting of land and slaves.

The Constitution and Slavery
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Constitution's clauses relating to slavery did not mention the word "slavery.”

Benjamin Rush on the Confederation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Benjamin Rush (c. 1745–1813) was an American physician and signer of the Declaration of Independence. He served as a member of the Continental Congress (1776–77) and for a time in the Continental army; he was also a member of the Pennsylvania convention that ratified the U.S. Constitution.

Jefferson on Slavery
Resource Type: Primary Source
Jefferson questioned the effects of slavery and slaveholding, and foretold its end.

Otis on the Rights of the British Colonies
Resource Type: Primary Source
James Otis (1725–83) was a political activist during the period leading up to the American Revolution. In pamphlets, he articulated grievances against the British government.

Give Me Liberty, or Give Me Death
Resource Type: Primary Source
At the second Virginia Convention, on March 23, 1775, Patrick Henry (1736–99) delivered this speech in which he argued that war with Great Britain was inevitable.

Lord Dunmore's Call to Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
In November 1775, Lord Dunmore called on slaves to desert their masters and join the British army.

Vermont's Constitution, 1777
Resource Type: Primary Source
The 1777 Vermont constitution included a clause that allowed for gradual emancipation.

Freedom Petition of New Hampshire Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
During the revolutionary era, many slaves petitioned colonial or state legislatures for their freedom and filed freedom suits, such as the one submitted by Nero Brewster, a slave, in Portsmouth on November 12, 1779.

An Act for Enfranchising Ned Griffin
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the wake of the Revolution, many Southern states liberalized their provisions for manumission. This came to an end between 1810 and 1820, as Southern lawmakers restricted, and in some cases barred, manumission.

Manumission of Slaves in Maryland
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the wake of the Revolution, many Southern states liberalized their provisions for manumission. This period of liberalized manumission came to an end between 1810 and 1820.

Jefferson on Emancipation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), in this letter to Edward Coles (1786–1868), maintained that emancipation was a task for the younger generation.

The Environmental Movements
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The larger issues of western expansion, industrialization, urbanization, and progressivism are explored in this DBQ on the environmental movements that arose at the end of the nineteenth century.

Railroad Ad
Resource Type: Primary Source
This Northern Pacific Railroad advertisement appeared in a 1900 issue of Harper's Weekly. The advertisement promotes travel to Yellowstone National Park.

Margaret Sanger on Working Women
Resource Type: Primary Source
Margaret Sanger became nationally famous for organizing a birth-control movement. In this 1915 issue of the International Socialist Review, Sanger discusses working women.

The Political Economist and the Tramp
Resource Type: Primary Source
In this poem, Phillips Thompson pokes fun at certain notions of Social Darwinism.

Board of Indian Commissioner Report
Resource Type: Primary Source
In this 1905 “Board of Indian Commissioner Report,” the federal government outlines its Indian policy.

Southern Society: Religion and Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Using this DBQ, students will examine the paradoxical role of religion in the lives of slaves in the antebellum South. Different kinds of religion are explored as students confront the ways in which religion served to liberate or to oppress slaves.

A Slave Account
Resource Type: Primary Source
Henry Bibb was born a slave in Kentucky in 1815. He escaped to Canada in 1837 and subsequently wrote an account of his experiences.

Stringfellow's Biblical Justification for Slavery
Resource Type: Primary Source
In his 1860 book, Thornton Stringfellow explains what he sees as the biblical justification for slavery.

Religious Instruction for Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
Peter Randolph was a former slave and a minister at the Old African Baptist Church in Richmond, Virginia. In the following excerpt, he describes religious instruction for slaves.

Ex-Slave Becomes a Preacher
Resource Type: Primary Source
Members of the New Deal’s Federal Writers’ Project interviewed former slaves during 1936–38. The misspellings respect the speech and regional dialect of the ex-slaves. Anderson Edwards, born in Texas on March 12, 1844, recounts his experience as a preacher.

Family Worship on a Plantation
Resource Type: Primary Source
This picture illustrates a family worshiping on a plantation in South Carolina. Note the African American preacher and both black and white worshipers.

Master Going to Sell Us Tomorrow
Resource Type: Primary Source
Spirituals were sung by slaves, mostly outside of churches. They reflected the values and experiences of African Americans.

The Master-Slave Relationship
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The recent scholarship on slavery explores the complex relationship between master and slave and re-examines the historical agency of slaves. In reading the slave narratives provided in this DBQ, students can assess how slaves tried to retain their dignity in the worst of circumstances.

Slave–Sale Broadside
Resource Type: Primary Source
A slaveowner advertises his slaves as valuable commodities, identifying each slave.

Letter from a Fugitive Slave
Resource Type: Primary Source
In this letter, escaped slave Anthony Chase explains to his former master Jeremiah Hoffman why he has run away.

Letter from a Slaveowner
Resource Type: Primary Source
In this letter, Henry Tayloe, a slaveowner, reveals to his brother the interest of Southern slaveholders in the institution of slavery.

Account of a Former Slave
Resource Type: Primary Source
In his 1846 autobiographical account, Lewis Clarke, a former slave, answers questions about the manner in which he lived before he gained his freedom in 1841.

Ran Away
Resource Type: Primary Source
This broadside promised a reward for the return of a fugitive slave.

Shackles
Resource Type: Primary Source
These iron leg shackles are typical of those used on Southern plantations in the mid-1800s to restrain slaves when they were being moved from one location to another and to punish slaves who attempted escape.

Frederick Douglass on Slavery
Resource Type: Primary Source
Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who gained fame as an orator and a writer promoting the cause of abolition. He wrote the following testimonial to the demoralizing effects of slavery in his autobiography.

Dred Scott Decision
Resource Type: Primary Source
The following excerpt is from the majority decision in the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford. Written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, it addresses the question of African American citizenship and slavery in the territories.

Testimony of a Female Slave
Resource Type: Primary Source
Harriet A. Jacobs recounts the unique struggles of female slaves in her autobiography, which was later edited by the famous abolitionist, Lydia Maria Child.

Experiences of Female Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
The following excerpt is from the narrative of a former slave who lived on a small farm in Tennessee.

Masters and Slaves
Resource Type: Primary Source
Members of the New Deal’s Federal Writers’ Project interviewed former slaves during 1936–38. The misspellings respect the speech and regional dialect of the ex-slaves. Mother Ann Clark, born June 1, 1825, was a slave in Louisiana. She describes the ruthlessness of her master.

Slaves Picking Cotton
Resource Type: Primary Source
In this illustration, slaves are shown picking cotton while overseers watch from horseback.

A New Masculinity
Resource Type: Point-Counterpoint
Historians are grappling with the changing definitions of American male identity that developed at the end of the nineteenth century. Casey Blake argues that American men were looking for ways to "compensate" for what they regarded as the feminine elements of modern life, particularly those brought about by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In response, a new definition of manhood, what Blake terms "aggressive male individualism," emerged. A teacher examines the interpretations of Gail Bederman and Susan Curtis.

Women and Social Reform
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation, students will be assigned the role of a prominent, late-nineteenth-century, middle-class American woman. The goal is to understand the changing perceptions and roles of women in Progressive-era America, as they took on leadership roles in a variety of associational groups such as the YWCA and the Red Cross.

Social Darwinism
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
This simulation captures American society in 1900 and presents a fictional meeting of educators. In their respective roles, students will debate the ways in which educational reform can improve American society. Students will understand how different strands of social-Darwinist thought informed American life, culture, and politics, imposing a legacy which continues to affect American education as well as the larger society.

Compromise Between the North and South
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this dramatic simulation students will explore the possibility of an eleventh-hour compromise between the North and the South on the eve of the Civil War (1861–65). Students will understand how mounting tensions in the 1850s eventually led to the outbreak of war.

Decisions of Slaves to Leave the Plantation: Should I Stay or Should I Go?
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation students will examine the very complex decision that slaves faced regarding whether to leave the plantations in the early years of the Civil War and whether to join the Union forces. Students will understand how a single decision gravely affected the lives of slaves, their families, the outcome of the war, and even the period of Reconstruction.

The American Revolution and Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The revolutionary era (1775–89) gave birth to contradictory definitions of freedom and equality. For some, freedom and equality entailed the right to property, including slave property. For others, freedom and equality implied universal entitlements that applied to all individuals, including slaves. This DBQ offers students the opportunity to debate these contradictory definitions by analyzing the definition of freedom each author uses in the provided documents.

Reclamation Act / Newlands Act of 1902
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Reclamation Act / Newlands Act of 1902 allowed the government to undertake irrigation projects to establish farms for relief of urban congestion. The bill was named for its author, Francis Griffith Newlands, Democratic Representative from Nevada. The Reclamation Service, created in July 1902, was established a month later and eventually became the Bureau of Reclamation.

Roosevelt on the Conservation Movement
Resource Type: Primary Source
In 1907, President Theodore Roosevelt explained in a speech to Congress the purpose of the Conservation Movement and how the government would seek to implement its goals.

Petition for Reservoir Rights
Resource Type: Primary Source
San Francisco petitioned Congress for use of the Hetch Hetchy area of Yosemite National Park for reservoir rights. The petition was presented at the congressional hearing before the Committee on the Public Lands of the House of Representatives.

The New World: Origins of Slavery
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The following primary sources, focusing on Bacon's Rebellion, help students understand the condition of freemen and indentured servants on the eve of the revolt and how colonial legislation helped institutionalize slavery in the southern colonies.

Colonial Society and Economy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Colonial society (Virginia in particular) changed from a society with slaves to a slave society, where slavery was the foundation of the economic and social order. This selection of primary sources allows students to understand how commerce and agricultural production caused slavery to replace indentured servitude in the southern colonies and to create new forms of wealth.

Bacon's Rebellion: Colonial Society and Politics
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation, which focuses on Bacon's Rebellion, students will recreate colonial society with a view to understanding how the legal and economic infrastructure of the colonies facilitated the development of slavery.

The American Revolution and the Meaning of Equality
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation, which recreates the Revolutionary era, students are asked to probe and debate the contemporary meanings of freedom and equality. They will examine the defining principles of the Founding Fathers and the U.S. Constitution, with a view toward understanding their impact on American political institutions and thought.

Middle-Class America and Its Discontents
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
This simulation asks students to place themselves in a Greenwich Village coffeehouse on the eve of the 1960s. Replicating a broad spectrum of American society, from conservatives to counterculture critics, students will understand how the fifties represented an era of consensus that paradoxically carried the seeds of protest that would fuel the rebellion of the sixties.

Historians Debate: Who Is Responsible for the Cold War?
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
This simulation involves a fictitious conference held in the year 2002, in which three groups of Cold War historians—orthodox, revisionist, and post-revisionist—debate the origins of the Cold War. Who is to blame, the United States, the Soviet Union, or both?

The Avant-Garde Artists of the 1950s
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this creative simulation, students role-play avant-garde artists of the 1950s to discuss important issues of the times (politics, the affluent society, race relations, women, etc.) from an artistic and intellectual perspective.

Industrialization and Sectionalism
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation, which examines the economic expansion and industrialization of the United States, students confront the increasing economic interdependence of the North and the South. The menacing tensions between the social and cultural realities of the two regions will be examined as students come to understand the many causes of the Civil War (1861–1865).

Mapping Early New York City
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this innovative simulation students learn the skills of mapping. Although focused here on the early history of New York City, these skills can be applied to any urban center in any time period.

Moot Court: Central Park on Trial
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
This simulation, a moot court, engages students in social and moral reform. By exploring how nineteeth-century social and political elites dispossessed various groups such as African Americans in order to build Central Park, students will understand how the present-day problems of gentrification and urban renewal have their roots in nineteeth-century reform.

General Benjamin Butler to General Winfield Scott
Resource Type: Primary Source
Two Union generals discuss emancipation.

The Second Confiscation Act
Resource Type: Primary Source
The U.S. Congress passsed legislation to inhibit treason against the Union.

The Red Scare
Resource Type: Primary Source
U.S. Army poster from the mid-1950s.

The Red Scare: A Totalitarian Nightmare
Resource Type: Primary Source
Two other members of the legendary "Hollywood Ten" John Howard Lawson (left) and Dalton Trumbo enter van to be taken to DC jail after they were sentenced to one year in jail and fined $1,000 each for contempt of court.

The Red Scare: A Totalitarian Nightmare
Resource Type: Primary Source
Seven members of the "Hollywood Ten" arrive at U.S. Federal Court in Washington, D.C., on June 22, 1950, to face charges of contempt. From left to right: Samuel Ornitz, Ring Lardner Jr., Albert Maltz, Alvah Bessie, Lester Cole, Herbert Biberman, and Edward Dmytryk.

The Red Scare: Klaus Fuchs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Photograph of British atomic scientist Klaus Fuchs that was used as an exhibit during the Rosenberg trial.

The Red Scare: Klaus Fuchs
Resource Type: Primary Source

The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Police photos of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.

The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Sketch used as evidence in the Rosenberg trial.

The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg leaving the U.S. Courthouse in New York City after being found guilty (1951).

The Red Scare: The Rosenbergs
Resource Type: Primary Source
Ethel Rosenberg arriving at Sing Sing Prison on April 11, 1951, following her death sentence.

Interpretations of the Red Scare
Resource Type: Primary Source
U.S. Army poster from the mid-1950s.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Domestic Subversion
Resource Type: Primary Source
Poster for I Was a Communist for the FBI, a fictional film about an FBI agent who infiltrates the Communist Party (1951).

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Alienated Travelers
Resource Type: Primary Source
U.S. Army poster from the mid-1950s.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Harry Truman holding up an early edition of the Chicago Tribune. The banner headline erroneously credited his opponent, Thomas Dewey, with victory in the 1948 presidential election.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 1.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 3.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 4.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 5.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 6.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Party Competition
Resource Type: Primary Source
Telegram exchange between Joseph McCarthy and Harry Truman, part 7. Truman's reply was probably never sent.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Institutional Stakes
Resource Type: Primary Source
The House Un-American Activities Committee.

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Institutional Stakes
Resource Type: Primary Source
Edgar Hoover, longtime director of the FBI and a passionate anticommunist (c. 1953).

Interpretations of the Red Scare: Why So Widespread?
Resource Type: Primary Source
McCarthy depicted as a threat to the press. Cartoon by Daniel Robert Fitzpatrick (1953).

Final Analysis
Resource Type: Primary Source
Senator Joseph McCarthy during the McCarthy-Army hearings (1954), which led to his political downfall.

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

The Red Scare: Alger Hiss
Resource Type: Primary Source
Richard M. Nixon (1913–94), 37th president of the United States, gained national prominence during the Red Scare of the early 1950s. Elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 after a campaign in which he accused his Democratic opponent of being soft on communism, Nixon went on to become a leader of Congressional investigations into communist activities in the United States. In particular, Nixon won national attention for his role in the investigation that the House Un-American Activities Committee conducted of Alger Hiss, an American who was alleged to have spied for the Soviets.

Key Figures
Resource Type: Primary Source

Television: Two-Edged Sword
Resource Type: Primary Source
Edward R. Murrow and Senator Joseph McCarthy on the news show See It Now during the McCarthy-Army hearings (July 8, 1954).

National Politics: Ike's Popularity
Resource Type: Primary Source
Dwight Eisenhower campaigns for president (1952).

National Politics: Looking to Business
Resource Type: Primary Source
President-elect Eisenhower and Vice President-elect Nixon, with cabinet nominees (January 1953).

National Politics: Looking to Business
Resource Type: Primary Source
President-elect Eisenhower, Viscount Bernard L. Montgomery, and Don G. Mitchell, president of Sylvania corporation (1958).

Conclusion
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Eisenhower, with his wife Mamie, during inauguration ceremonies for his second term (January 1957).

Segregation: Brown v. Board of Education
Resource Type: Primary Source
Linda Brown in class at the segregated school she attended before the Supreme Court decided her case and outlawed school segregation.

Segregation: Brown v. Board of Education
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Supreme Court's decree calling for desegregation "with all deliberate speed," issued a year after the court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.

Introduction
Resource Type: Primary Source
President John F. Kennedy, shortly after taking office, meets with former President Dwight Eisenhower (April 1961).

Presidents and Liberalism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of the first edition of The American Presidency by Clinton Rossiter (1956).

Presidents and Liberalism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Cover of the first edition of Presidential Power: The Politics of Leadership by Richard Neustadt (1960.)

Presidents and Liberalism
Resource Type: Primary Source
Dwight Eisenhower, former U.S. president and former Columbia University president, visits Columbia's campus (1964).

John F. Kennedy
Resource Type: Primary Source
President and Mrs. Kennedy entertain guests at the White House. Left to right: Frederic March, actor; Mary Walsh (Mrs. Ernest) Hemingway; President and Mrs. Kennedy; and Katherine (Mrs. George C.) Marshall. The first couple hosted many leading cultural figures.

John F. Kennedy: A New Generation
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Kennedy's Inaugural Address (1961).

John F. Kennedy: Charm and Grace
Resource Type: Primary Source
Pablo Casals, cellist, performs for the Kennedys at the White House (1961).

Lyndon B. Johnson
Resource Type: Primary Source
John F. Kennedy as a young man, Palm Beach, Florida.

Lyndon B. Johnson
Resource Type: Primary Source
Lyndon Johnson as a child, with his sister Josefa Johnson.

Lyndon B. Johnson: Kennedy and Johnson's Legacy
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Johnson, in a characteristic pose, with his Supreme Court nominee, Abe Fortas (1965).

The Great Society
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Johnson visits a resident of Appalachia during his poverty tour (1964).

The Great Society
Resource Type: Primary Source
Head Start class in the Bronx, New York City (1969).

The Great Society: A Social Crusade
Resource Type: Primary Source

The Great Society: A Social Crusade
Resource Type: Primary Source
President Johnson's Inaugural Address (1965).

The Great Society: The War on Poverty
Resource Type: Primary Source
Poster for the Job Corps program of the Office of Economic Opportunity (c. 1970).

Special Message to the Congress: The American Promise
Resource Type: Primary Source
Text of President Johnson's speech introducing the voting-rights bill to a Joint Session of Congress (March 15, 1965).

A National Problem
Resource Type: Primary Source
Mounted police disperse demonstrators during a conflict over racial integration of schools, Boston (1974).

Militancy: The Black Panthers
Resource Type: Primary Source
Black Panther Party members at the California state capitol argue with a state policeman after he disarms them, Sacramento (May 2, 1967).

Public Health
Resource Type: Primary Source
Official recommendations for cholera prevention in New York City.


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