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There are 107 items indexed to this topic.


NCSS-7

Production, Distribution and Consumption


Resources:

History as Destiny: The Case of New York City
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant interactive tools:
New York Is a Business Town
New York Is a Business Town
Will New York's economy always be strong?
Will New York's economy always be strong?

Colonial City: Revolutionary Battleground
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant transcripts:
Bitter Rivals
Slavery: A Business Necessity
New York Fights to Protect Its Business
Conclusion: The City Prospers as Never Before

Relevant interactive tools:
The Entrepreneurial Spirit
Luck and the Auction System
The Entrepreneurial Spirit
Luck and the Auction System

Urban Crisis: Fire and Water
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant texts:
The Manhattan Company

Relevant transcripts:
A Bank and a Private Water Company

Relevant interactive tools:
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, Part 1
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, Part 2
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, Part 1
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, Part 2

Urban Crisis: Disease, Crime, and Space
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant texts:
Cholera
Background to the Riots

New Deal Order
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Legacies: Mimicking Wartime Expansion
The New Framework
The New Framework: The GI Bill
The New Framework: The Full Employment Bill
The New Framework: The Fair Deal
The New Framework: Postwar Domestic Order

Relevant transcripts:
If production were regulated, the economy would prosper.
The ideas of British economist John Maynard Keynes (18831946) became extremely popular in postwar America.
The consumer economy was made possible by growing abundance.

The Stable Fifties
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Abundance
Abundance: Defining the Middle Class

Relevant transcripts:
The illusion of redistribution.
What happened to the middle class?
Outside the middle class.

The Old South
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Introduction
The Cotton Kingdom: The Spread of Slavery
The Cotton Kingdom: The Economics of Cotton
Slave Life and Culture: Varieties of Slave Labor
Slave Life and Culture: Field Workers' Conditions

The Origins of Slavery in the New World
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Slavery in History: New World Encounters
Slavery in the Americas: Free to Forced Labor
Slavery in the Americas: Plantation Agriculture
Laws and Statutes: Slave Labor Expands
Slavery and Empire: The British Empire
Slavery and Empire
Systems of Slavery: The Chesapeake
Systems of Slavery: The South

The Struggle for Freedom
Resource Type: E-Seminar

Relevant pages:
Meanings of Freedom: Economic Independence

The New Framework
Resource Type: Primary Source
Still from In Our Hands, Part 2: What We Have (1950).

The Affluent Society
Resource Type: Primary Source
Galbraith's classic study of 1950s America discusses the irony of the existence of significant poverty in affluent America.

Discovery and Settlement: New Amsterdam
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The present-day issues of tolerance and diversity are explored in colonial society. These primary sources provide contemporary perceptions of Native Americans, African Americans, Jews, and European settlers.

The American Revolution: Defeat and Victory in New York
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
New York City was a center of loyalist support and trans-Atlantic trade during the revolutionary era. The documents on the Battle of Brooklyn, the British occupation, and the end of the Revolutionary war demonstrate how these events were turned into victories for New York, establishing the city's path toward national and world prominence.

Petition to Have the Five Points Opened
Resource Type: Primary Source
Merchants owning property along the periphery of Five Points petitioned the municipal government in 1829 to demolish the heart of the slum by widening and extending Anthony and Cross Streets.

Urban Society: Central Park and Social Reform
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This microhistory of Central Park in New York City provides students with a laboratory for learning how social reformers attempted to clean the city of its slums and promote the well-being of its residents. These tools can be applied to the study of any large city.

New Deal Liberalism and Postwar Economic Growth
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The primary sources in this DBQ help students explore the legacy of New Deal liberalism as American society is transformed during the 1940s and 50s. Economic, political, and social issues interact to simultaneously and paradoxically enhance and undermine government intervention in American society.

Eisenhower and the Politics of the 1950s
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This selection of primary sources gives students an opportunity to examine different layers of dissent during the Eisenhower presidency. Although President Eisenhower enjoyed great public support, his administration was challenged by problems at home and abroad.

Homogenized Society and Conformity
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
This carefully crafted selection of primary sources will allow students to weigh the multiplicity of factors that influenced American culture in the 1950s, such as the Cold War, government policies, legislation, corporations, and television. Students can focus on the extent to which consensus and conformity dominated relations among or within various social groups.

The Counterculture
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Although the decade of the 1950s deserves its reputation as an age of political, social, and cultural conformity, seeds of social discontent nevertheless permeated American society. This carefully crafted DBQ focuses on the intellectual and artisitic critics of the affluent society, as well as the origins of the women's and civil-rights movements.

Levitt On Communism and Home Ownership
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its mass-produced housing. William Levitt is quoted as saying the following.

Levittown, New York
Resource Type: Primary Source
As the first community of its kind, Levittown, New York, located 25 miles east of Manhattan on Long Island, heralded the postwar arrival of suburban America with its hundreds of acres of mass-produced housing.

The Affluent Soceiety: Public vs. Private Sectors
Resource Type: Primary Source
John Kenneth Galbraith, a prominent Harvard economist, outlined in this article the necessary balance that should exist between the private and public sectors of the American economy.

The Other America
Resource Type: Primary Source
With this book, writer and social activist Michael Harrington helped launch the New Left movement of the 1960s and its concerns about American poverty and social injustice.

The Feminine Mystique
Resource Type: Primary Source
Founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Betty Friedan wrote this influential treatise critiquing the loneliness and dissatisfaction felt by many suburban housewives in postwar America.

Capitalism, Slavery, and Free Labor
Resource Type: Primary Source
Apologists for slavery, like George Fitzhugh, often argued that the investment in slaves positively influenced the way slaveowners treated them.

Manumission of Slaves in North Carolina
Resource Type: Primary Source
In the wake of the Revolution, many Southern states liberalized their provisions for manumission. By 1790, slaveholders could manumit their slaves throughout the South, except in North Carolina.

The Environmental Movements
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The larger issues of western expansion, industrialization, urbanization, and progressivism are explored in this DBQ on the environmental movements that arose at the end of the nineteenth century.

Railroad Ad
Resource Type: Primary Source
This Northern Pacific Railroad advertisement appeared in a 1900 issue of Harper's Weekly. The advertisement promotes travel to Yellowstone National Park.

Scientific Advances and Thinking
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
By the late-nineteenth century, science and scientific thought influenced American intellectual life and culture. The documents attached to this DBQ allow students to assess how the achievements of science were both admired and feared.

Kodak Camera Ad
Resource Type: Primary Source
This advertisement for Kodak cameras appeared in a 1900 issue of the magazine Youth's Companion.

Remington Typewriter Company Ad
Resource Type: Primary Source
In a 1905 advertisement, the Remington Typewriter Company used two letters by Mark Twain to illustrate how his attitude toward the typewriter had changed over a period of thirty years.

The Principles of Scientific Management
Resource Type: Primary Source
Frederick W. Taylor was a mechanical engineer who wrote extensively about scientific management, a method of managing groups of people based on scientific principles, as part of progressive notions of efficiency. His ideas influenced business management theory in America and around the world. The Principles of Scientific Management is a collection of his essays published in 1911.

Mechanized Home Laundry
Resource Type: Primary Source
This drawing dramatically illustrates the increasing mechanization of domestic life during the second decade of the twentieth century.

Social Darwinism: Its Influence and Legacy
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
Social Darwinism is usually understood as an ideology that justified survival of the fittest, that argued against government intervention or social reform to improve society. The documents in this DBQ, however, point to the complexity of social-Darwinist thought, considering how a progressive version fueled the Progressive Era and how a conservative strand exerted tremendous influence in American political thought.

The Political Economist and the Tramp
Resource Type: Primary Source
In this poem, Phillips Thompson pokes fun at certain notions of Social Darwinism.

Sumner on Social Darwinism
Resource Type: Primary Source
William Graham Sumner was an American social scientist influenced by Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin. Sumner applied Darwin's evolutionary theory to human society.

Carnegie on Wealth
Resource Type: Primary Source
Andrew Carnegie made millions in the steel industry during the nineteeth century. While he was willing to share his wealth with those less fortunate than himself, he did set certain restrictions, as outlined in his 1889 article "Wealth."

Evolution and Labor Movements
Resource Type: Primary Source
In this 1893 magazine, an unknown writer comments on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution as it applied to the labor movement.

Exhibition of American Negroes at World's Fair
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Exhibition of American Negroes at the 1900 Paris World's Fair tried to show that blacks in America had become part of the American middle class.

The Master-Slave Relationship
Resource Type: Document-Based Question
The recent scholarship on slavery explores the complex relationship between master and slave and re-examines the historical agency of slaves. In reading the slave narratives provided in this DBQ, students can assess how slaves tried to retain their dignity in the worst of circumstances.

Slave–Sale Broadside
Resource Type: Primary Source
A slaveowner advertises his slaves as valuable commodities, identifying each slave.

Letter from a Slaveowner
Resource Type: Primary Source
In this letter, Henry Tayloe, a slaveowner, reveals to his brother the interest of Southern slaveholders in the institution of slavery.

Account of a Former Slave
Resource Type: Primary Source
In his 1846 autobiographical account, Lewis Clarke, a former slave, answers questions about the manner in which he lived before he gained his freedom in 1841.

Ran Away
Resource Type: Primary Source
This broadside promised a reward for the return of a fugitive slave.

Shackles
Resource Type: Primary Source
These iron leg shackles are typical of those used on Southern plantations in the mid-1800s to restrain slaves when they were being moved from one location to another and to punish slaves who attempted escape.

Frederick Douglass on Slavery
Resource Type: Primary Source
Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who gained fame as an orator and a writer promoting the cause of abolition. He wrote the following testimonial to the demoralizing effects of slavery in his autobiography.

Slaves Picking Cotton
Resource Type: Primary Source
In this illustration, slaves are shown picking cotton while overseers watch from horseback.

Compromise Between the North and South
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this dramatic simulation students will explore the possibility of an eleventh-hour compromise between the North and the South on the eve of the Civil War (1861–65). Students will understand how mounting tensions in the 1850s eventually led to the outbreak of war.

Decisions of Slaves to Leave the Plantation: Should I Stay or Should I Go?
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
In this simulation students will examine the very complex decision that slaves faced regarding whether to leave the plantations in the early years of the Civil War and whether to join the Union forces. Students will understand how a single decision gravely affected the lives of slaves, their families, the outcome of the war, and even the period of Reconstruction.

Middle-Class America and Its Discontents
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
This simulation asks students to place themselves in a Greenwich Village coffeehouse on the eve of the 1960s. Replicating a broad spectrum of American society, from conservatives to counterculture critics, students will understand how the fifties represented an era of consensus that paradoxically carried the seeds of protest that would fuel the rebellion of the sixties.

Historians Debate: Who Is Responsible for the Cold War?
Resource Type: Classroom Simulation
This simulation involves a fictitious conference held in the year 2002, in which three groups of Cold War historians—orthodox, revisionist, and post-revisionist—debate the origins of the Cold War. Who is to blame, the United States, the Soviet Union, or both?

Abundance
Resource Type: Primary Source
Poster from the U.S. Housing Authority (1940s).

Abundance
Resource Type: Primary Source
New York City housing project (c. 1950).

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Ad describes the rush by veterans to buy homes in Levittown, N.Y.

The Suburbs: Conformity and Isolation
Resource Type: Primary Source
Customers wait in line to buy houses in Levittown, N.Y.

National Politics: Looking to Business
Resource Type: Primary Source
President-elect Eisenhower, Viscount Bernard L. Montgomery, and Don G. Mitchell, president of Sylvania corporation (1958).

The Cotton Kingdom: The Industrial Revolution
Resource Type: Primary Source
Power loom weaving in a New England textile factory. The leather belts transmitted power from a central waterwheel or a steam engine.

Cities Deal with Water
Resource Type: Primary Source
The Oceanus logo, which the Bank of the Manhattan Company carried over from its origins as a water business.


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